DUMBER 1. SPRIIVO 1836.
Outlines of A National History;
ANCIENT AND MODERN NATIONS
NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA.
Of this wide Western Hemisphera^\)
^*^^>-^ * O*illf ts
; T^rsss- - -- -^
Let us retrace the history ; TT J **/y j ^/
Of all the Nations dwelling herejj^ -*-* * "* ^ * f/*
Let us recall the memory
FIRST NUMBER, OR VOMJME:
GENERALITIES AND ANNALS.
BY PROF. C. S* RAFINESQUE,
PUBLISHED BY C. S. RAFINESQUE,
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It contains an introduction, general view,
account of materials and cataclysms, the
Linapi and Haytian annals, with the Hay-
tian Language, notes, tables, &c.
OUTLINES OF THEIR
ANCIENT AN MODERN:
INCLUDING THE WHOLE HISTORY OF THE EARTH
AND MANKIND IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE;
THE PHILOSOPHY OF AMERICAN HISTORY;
THE ANNALS, TRADITIONS, CIVILIZATION,
LANGUAGES, &c., OF ALL THK AMERI
CAN NATIONS, TR1BKS, EMPIRES,
With Maps, Plates, Vines, and Plans of Monuments,
Tables, Notes, and Illustrations.
BY C. S. RAFINESaUE:
Professor of Historical and Natural Sciences,
Member of many Learned Societies in Paris, Bor
deaux, Bruxels, Bonn, Vienna, Zurich, Naples, &c,
in Europe. Philadelphia, New York. Cincinnati,
Lexington, Nashville, &c., in America. The Ameri
can Antiquarian Society, &c.
" All we have hitherto learnt respecting the ancient state of the
" Natives of the Ntw Continent is nothing in comparison to the
" light that will be one day thrown on this subjeet, if we succeed in
* bringing together the materials now scattered over both worlds,
"that have survived the ages of ignorance and barbarism." Hum-
C. S. RAFINESQUE, 110 NORTH TENTH ST.
PRINTED BY F. TURNER, 367 MARKET ST.
ENTERED according to act of Congress,
in the year 1836, by C. S. RAFINESQUE, in
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the Eastern District of the State of Penn
SOCIETY OF GEOGRAPHY.
To you I dedicate this work, result of long and
weary researches. This homage is due to the public
approbation you gave to ray first analogous labor, ray
Memoirs or Series of Researches on the Origiu of
Mankind : which I endeavored to trace philologically
to the centre of Asia. I had announced long ago this
history of the Americans, the inhabitants of a whole
hemisphere. I had quoted it in my other works.
I now offer the outlines of it under your auspices.
You have furnished the example of cultivating
along with Geography, all the auxiliary and connected
sciences, which may enlighten it : particularly the
ancient and modern Ethnography, with Philology one
of its bases. You will see that I have followed this
practice in availing myself of all the sciences to en
lighten the history of mankind, the Ethnography and
annals of nations : above all Philology with Chrono
logy and Geography.
The origins and annals of the black nations, and
of the American nations, were two subjects quite ob
scure and neglected, or the least known, of the history
of mankind. Nobody has undertaken, as yet, the
history of the Negro nations: a labor so difficult and
luckless as to be despised.
My memoirs on this despised race, may perhaps
furnish the bases of such history. All the histories
of America are mere fragments or dreams. I have
perceived the possibility and necessity to write a ge
neral and faithful history of this hemisphere. I now
offer the results of this weary labor.
You will perceive in it many things which have
already been said; since it is impossible to write his
tory without repetitions; but my plan, the whole point
of view, and the results which I draw, are my own.
You will also find many things which were never told
or were very improperly presented. I shall destroy
many errors, hypotheses and conjectures : since in
them alone often consist our works upon America.
But I shall not say every thing; where so much
is to be related, all cannot be told : and I shall be
compelled to neglect several minute details. I wish
to trace faithful outlines, rather than write a bulky
work, like our pretending universal histories, which
however, dwell only upon one-third of the globe or
1 dislike long quotations, and shall seldom em
ploy them : I quote only when authorities are required
to render an opinion more forcible. Every where else
I merely give the abridgement of my great historical
materials in manuscript, which are arranged by ex
tracts of authorities, and where they may be sought
for in case of need.
Accept, Gentlemen, the respectful homage of
October 22d, 1833. $
IN venturing to open a new path in his
torical researches on the earth and man
kind, it is incumbent on the bold pioneer
to state his views, or at least Ho furnish
adequate reasons for deviating so far from
the usual track.
While every science and branch of
knowledge is improving, and has, with rapid
strides, made continual advances for fifty
years past or more, is the noble muse of
history to be kept stationary forever, by
compilers and classical plodders ? and for
America by the foes of the ancient and
modern nations of a whole hemisphere?
No. ... it is time to improve history as
every thing else ; to seek the truth and
As the human mind is yet more swayed
by authorities, than genius or wisdom;
high authorities will be given instead of
long explanations. Ever since the time of
Juvenal, it has been an ungrateful task to
write historical truth : men often prefer to
be amused, deceived, or helped in strife ;
than to be instructed, or receive sketches
of former times. Yet there is always a
secret delight in viewing faithful pictures
of ages past, of our ancestors on earth, and
our predecessors on the soil of our homes, or
where we spend the scenes of our own lives.
The worthies who have been taken for mo
dels or guides in this arduous undertaking,
are Solomon, Moses, Job, St. Paul, St. Aug
ustine, Plato, Niebuhr, Humboldt, Malcolm,
Gebelin, D Olivet, Bryant, Adelung, Drum-
mond, Pritchard, Champollion, Klaproth,
Jones, Wilford, Akbar, Price, Bailly, Rus
sell, Beattie, Herder, Carli, Barton &c.
They shall speak for themselves, in quota
tions of their own words, instead of elaborate
From God comes wisdom, knowledge
and understanding SOLOMON Prov. 2. v. ft.
Those who will seek early wisdom will find
her SOL. Pr. 8. v. 17. Hear instruction
and be wise, and refuse it not SOL. Pr. 8.
ZE this is. SFR book. THU symbol.
LDTH progeny. ADM mankind. BIUM
in manifestation. BRA in realization.
ALEIM angels. ADM mankind. BDM-
UTH in identic passage. ALEIM angels.
OSHE worked. ATHU such symbol.
MOSES. Genesis ch, 5. v. 1. Genuine mo
saic words, and genuine translation word
When I laid the foundations of the earth
. . . the morning stars sung together, and
the sons of God shouted for joy. SPEECH
or GOD HIMSELF IN JOB ch. 38., Vulgar
translation: the original is still more
The Hebrew philosophy divided the
world in two hemispheres, the upper was
SHMIM or Sham-aim^ the Heavens the
lower was SHEOL ; but SHEOL-TAHTITH
or inferior, was the place of bad souls and
Rephaim. (The true SHEOL was Ame
rica, or the southern hemisphere). The
Jesuit Sanetius thought that Job had spo
ken of America. PETERS, Dissertation
It is very possible for modern learning
to understand better the books of Moses,
Orpheus, and those of all ancient nations,
than the Egyptian, Greek and Roman
commentators : because the intellectual
knowledge of languages is improving ; and
those ancient writers have, by their genius,
approximated to us, while removed from
the blindness of their ages. GEBELIN,
The letter kills, but the spirit gives life.
ST. PAUL Corinth. II. ch. 3. v. 6. We
use great plainness of speech, and not as
MOSES who put a veil before his face, that
the children of Israel could ,not stedfastly
look to the end of that which is abolished.
Cor. II. 3. v. 12, 13. and even unto
this day, when Moses is read, the veil is
upon their heart, nevertheless when it shall
please the Lord, this veil shall be taken
away. Cor. II. 3. v. 15, 16.
To have a right apprehension of words
or names, is a good step to the knowledge
of things. PLATO in Cratylo.
The confusion of words in the cause of
all disputes and sects. D ISRAELI.
The obscure ages demand bold hypo
theses or total neglect, contradictions are
inseparable from days of tradition. There
exist no instance of a people really savage
having spontaneously advanced to civiliza-
tion. Savage men are degenerated or
imperfect creatures. . .Words and even few
are the rules of analogies in nations.
NIEBUHR, Roman History, Vol I.
It is manifest that there are noble re
sources (for history) still remaining, if we
will but apply ourselves to diligent enquiry.
There are in every climate some scat
tered fragments of original history, some
traces of a primitive and universal lan
guage. Even America would contribute
to this purpose, the more rude the monu
ments, the more ancient they may possi
bly prove, and afford greater light on
enquiry. BRYANT, MYTHOLOGY; conclu
sion of the work.
To accumulate materials without gene
ralizing any idea is a method as sterile in
history as in natural philosophy. The
geology of America does not differ essen
tially from that of the old world, the strata
and the emersion from the waters are not
newer : species long extinct have also pre
ceded those now peopling the earth, the
waters and the air. The problem of the
first population of America is no more the
province of history, than the questions on
the origin of plants and animals. When
we shall better know the brown men of
Africa, with those of the north and east of
Asia, the American nations will be less
insulated They have extended from lat.
68 N. to 55 S. or 123 degress of latitude,
in plains and mountains, assuming various
complexions and stature. If Africa has
140 languages, America has still more;
resembling in this, the Caucasus, Italy be
fore the Romans ; but they are susceptible
of classification into families. The multi
plicity of languages is a very ancient phe
nomenon, perhaps those which we call
American, belong no more to America, than
the Magyar and Choud or Finn to Europe.
HUMBOLDT, American Researches, In
If we desire to be fully informed of a
nation s history, we must not reject the
fables under which the few traces that re
main of its origin are concealed. These,
however extravagant, always merit atten
tion they have an influence on the character
of the people to whom they relate. First
words of MALCOLM, History of Persia.
The Chinese often call the king, the
kingdom and the nation by the same name,
nay, even also the capital city. REGIS,
History of Corea, in Duhalde China.
The cradle or first seat of mankind was
in Asia, between lat. 30 and 50 ; which is
also the native place of all the domestic
animals, fruits and grains. Adelung, Bail-
ly, Higgins, $c.
The Genesis was a compilation of Moses
from older annals, some perhaps by Noah
himself. Revd. Mr. Davies, Herder.
The patriarchs of Moses and Pitris of
Hindus were nations, personifications of
early tribes. Drummond, D Olivet, Wil-
The early gods and kings of Greece and
Italy, were probably tribes, the chiefs and
followers being called by the same name.
This is true also of the various Hercules
or wandering Heros. Dodwell, Jamieson.
Trying them by the languages, the Ame
ricans will appear to be children of the
earliest human families. BARTON, Physi
A flood of historical light has lately flown
from India and Asia ; but we lack still the
real annals of Thibet : Polynesia and Ame
rica may yet supply many facts and fill
some blanks. The original seat of civili
zation was between the Ganges and the
Nile, the Caspian and the ocean. The
first tribes after the flood were fishermen
and Frugivores, next hunters who did
spread north east as far as America, and
shepherds south west, as far as Cape of
Good hope. PRITCHARD, Physical His
tory of Man.
The genealogy of the kings of England
is derived direct from Noah in 25 genera
tions only, to Cerdic first king of Wessex
in 495 ; and through SCEAF born in the
ark ! giving more than 125 years for each
generation, which is impossible, arid proves
these names, successive tribes or dynasties
till Woden. INGRAM, Saxon Chronicle.
The Ethiopians, Nubians and Egyptians
are a peculiar race, perhaps in Africa be
fore the flood. CHAMPOLLION, Systcme
The languages are better guides than
physical characters for researches on man-
kind, and roots more important than gram
Language belongs to man from origin^
he never was a dumb animal, else he would
always have remained so. All languages
have something in common, and something
peculiar. BEATTIE, Theory of Language.
A thousand nations with a thousand
idioms, are spread over a thousand places
on earth. Thrown against each other like
the waves of the sea, they blend and tend
to unity. Several rival languages are
formed, polished by contract, which over
spread the earth ; and break to pieces as
well as nations and empires. Others arise
from their ruins, and strive again for ascen
dency, until at last a people and language,
son and daughter of all the previous nations
and idioms, heirs of their dominion and
wealth; shall perhaps invade the whole
earth, and produce again the unity of
speech and rule. D OLIVET, End of He
It is said, In the beginning God made
Heaven and Earth, that is to say, the
seeds of heaven and earth, since their mat
ter was yet in confusion in a potential
way. ST. AUGUSTINE on Genesis.
In the whole Mosaic text there is no
Eden, no tree, no apple, no rib, no woman,
no snake, no ark. . . . but other words
thus improperly translated to veil the
sense. . . . Adam is not a man, but man
kind, Aish intellectual men, Ashe mate or
potent will, HUE our Eve is living exist-
ence ! . . . The names of patriarchs are
all expressive of operations of mankind. . .
Yet Moses Unity of God, and Belief in
Immortality is evident throughout ; al
though so obscured by the translation as
to have been doubted. . . . Moses with
his veils is made absurd ; raising the veils
he appears wise, deep, consistent, even
more enlightened than our age on many
points. D OLIVET, Notes on Genesis.
Whenever the numerical letters of Mo
ses are taken in their material sense, inex
tricable difficulties have arisen ; and which
is the true version out of the 3 is doubtful :
the deep mosaic meaning and import shall
never be known, until the ancient lost sci
ence of numbers is restored, which was
once known from China to Egypt and
Europe. D OLIVET, last note.
Eblis or Satan was disgraced from Hea
ven, where Rezoan was his successor, and
exiled to Seyestan, with the Snake and
Peacock tribes his followers, Adam was
exiled to Ceylon, Eve to Arabia &c.
PRICE, Translation of Abijayffer s His
tory of Arabia.
Menu was Adam, but there are seven
Menus, the seventh was Noah. SIR W.
JONES, Laws of Menu. WILFORD.
The Babylonian empire begun 530 years
after the flood, 2790 years after Adam.
RUSSELL, Connection of Sacred History.
Primitive history is under a veil, involved
in fables; but all ancient fables have a his
torical base. BAILLY, on Atlantis.
PREFACE. 1 1
Before Adam God created the Dives
(angels) who had 72 kings or Sol-i-man
for 7000 years, and after them the Peris
govern for 2000 years, HERBELOT, Ori
Noah dwelt near Cabul and Cashmir, his
Ararat was in the Imalaya mountains.
SHUCKFORD,WELLS, Sacred Geography fyc.
As early as 4600 years before Christ,
there was a communication between the
Americans and the east by astronomical
coincidences. CARLI, American Letters.
Two great wars or Mahabharat followed
by dispersions of mankind, happened in In
dia in 3236 and 2501 (before our era) ;
and the Indian solar empire of Berhut at
Inderput now Delhi, ascends 16 genera
tions beyond the first, at least to 3750
years B. C. Institutes of the Emperor
AKBAR, translated by GLADWIN.
Such are my guides. Are not those
For my rules of criticism, I have taken
for guide, Isaac Taylor s excellent history
of the transmission of ancient books, Lon
don, 1827. They may be analysed as fol
lows, from his own summary.
1. If the records of antiquity could be de
prived of their authority, we should also be
deprived of intelligence, liberty and religion!
2. Dates are of little importance; being
anciently expressed by letters, they are
liable to errors. The Greeks and all eas
tern Christians reckon 5508 years from
Adam to Christ.
3. Geography and natural facts are open
4. Wonders, monsters, miracles, are not
always fabulous, but doubtful. Natural
phenomena if unconnected with omens,
may be right.
5. Speeches and secret motives do not
belong to history, they are ornaments of
rhetoric or mere surmises.
6. Facts are only to be attended to, they
become more certain, if corroborated by
monuments, inscriptions, coins &c.
7. The silence of a historian does not
invalidate the assertions of others.
8. Contradictions, exagerations, preju
dices, party spirit, national dislike, must
be allowed for. The arrogance of the
Greeks and Chinese, who call barbarians,
nations as good as they, is shameful, and
must be noticed, as well as errors arising
from hiding defeats &c.
The independent sources of history be
sides writers are, 1. remains of literature.
2. Chronological documents and astrono
mical calculations, 3. Natural features of
nature and mankind, with permanent phy
sical facts, 4. Permanent institutions, man
ners, monuments, languages &c. Lastly,
remote facts may be certain ; although a
long while elapsed : whatever be the con
sequence; and even if the first evidence
may have been erroneously transmitted, or
not perspicuous. But accumulated evi
dence ought never to be doubted.
&*?*&. &} ? &
GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Natural Re
gions of America. Ancient and Mo
dern Nations. Historical Periods.
Since our Globe is better known, it is no
longer divided into 4 Continents ; but must
be divided into 3 great parts of the world
or Tholomeres, each containing 3 lesser
divisions or Geotomes, viz:
I. PROTIIOLIA or THOLARKON, the ancient
\vorld, containing, 1. Asia, 2. Africa, 3.
Europe, which are continents.
II. NEOTHOLIA or HESPERIA, the new
world, containing, 1. Atalia or North Ame
rica, 2. Columbia or South America, which
are two continents . . . and 3. the Antilles
OP West Indies, the Archipelagos to the
East and North, Carib and Lucayes islands,
III. OCEANIA or THOLONESIA, the Oceanic
or Insular world, containing, 1. Australia,
which is a continent, 2. Meganesia or the
great Islands from Japan till Ceylan and
Madagascar, 3. Polynesia, the small Eas
tern Islands. These two last form immense
groups of archipelagos, or clustered islands.
Therefore the terrestrial world includes
6 continents, and 3 groups of archipelagos,
forming 9 geotomes.
It is of NEOTHOLIA that I write the history,
of this third of the world, named likewise
America, or the two Americas ; a double
continent, crowned in the East and towards
the two poles by archipelagos.
Such an extensive part of the world,
reaching nearly to both poles, offers to
our notice and researches a crowd of ob
jects, nations and events. If our universal
histories which are confined to a small part
only of the old world, form already bulky
collections; it would be equally so with
America, if we had complete annals of it.
But, notwithstanding the scanty materials
which have reached us on its ancient histo
ry ; the modern annals and the old traditions
of the nations dwelling there, afford many
facts : and many auxiliary means contribute
to enlarge the previous history, in unfolding
the origins and revolutions of the nations
and empires of both Americas. Thus, we
shall often have to make a choice or abridge
these materials, particularly in these out
lines of a general history.
Formerly, historians wrote chiefly chroni
cles of the empires, kingdoms and republics;
which were often mere biographies of mo-
narchs and chiefs, conquerors and tyrants.
We begin now to think more of mankind
and the nations. I shall follow this princi
ple, and trace at last a national history of
America; this subject is so new, that we
have not even yet a good history of man
kind in Europe, much less in Asia and
Having dwelt in this continent since
having settled in it since 1815, and having
travelled in it every year to study the monu
ments and productions thereof: it was since
1818 that I began to conceive the possibility
of raising the veil that was thrown over
the annals of this third of the world. I
have visited the public libraries of Wash
ington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New-York,
Boston, Albany, Lexington, &c. to consult
all the historical works on America, and
every other part of the world. I have read
nearly all the travels in America and other
distant countries. In the Ebeling library
deposited in that of Cambridge University
near Boston, I have found many ancient
works on America, often unique in the
United States, and very rare even in Eu
rope. There is but a small number of rare
works, which I have not yet been able to
see ; I shall give a list of them, in order
that it may be ascertained whether they
contain facts that have escaped me. My
researches upon the languages and monu
ments of America, will compensate this
unavoidable neglect, since they exceed
whatever had been undertaken of the kind.
I have thus endeavored to collect and com
pare all the facts relating to my subject.
I have not imitated, therefore, the lazy
writers, who have pretended to give us
histories of America, and have commonly
produced mere sketches of it, full of ne
glects and defects. Such were Robertson,
Holmes, Touron, Herrera, &c., with a crowd
of imitators and compilers, which confine
themselves to some years, or a single re
gion, or the mere first Spanish invasions.
They have, however, acquired some repu
tation either by style or manner ; but they
have degraded history, by giving sketches
instead of it. We must except Herrera,
who does not shine by the style ; but is at
least a faithful annalist of the Spanish deeds
and colonies during 62 years, from 1492
till 1552. But Robertson, although praised
for his style, is only his unfaithful and im
perfect imitator, and the obvious slanderer
of the American nations.
A complete criticism of the writers on
America, would be desirable ; but cannot
enter into the plan of these historical out
lines ; although it may find a place in ulte
rior illustrations. It will be sufficient now
to indicate that the best works, or those
which furnish the greatest number of his
torical materials, are the old writers and
travellers; Since the modern historians
and travellers (except Humboldt and a
few more) appear to forget whatever has
already been written on America.
The historian of such an extensive con-
\ tinent, should not be a mere annalist ; but
he ought to know well all the comparative
sciences, sisters of history, such as chrono
logy, geograghy, biography, archeology,
ethnography, philology, &c. He ought
also to be a philosopher and a philanthro
pist, to know the natural sciences which
become connected with history by civiliza
tion, agriculture, and geology ; he ought,
above all, to be impartial and a good critic,
in order to discard national prejudices, and
avoid the blunders of credulity or impos
ture. What historian has ever united such
acquirements ? I have tried to acquire
them : Have I succeeded ? I offer my
writings as the answer.
My method has been to make copious
extracts of all the authors that I read.
These materials already form a collection
of over one hundred books of 6000 pages
on the history of the earth and mankind :
whereof I avail myself for all my historical
works. I have formed besides another col
lection of iconographic illustrations, maps,
plans, monuments, views, portraits, alpha
bets, symbols, implements, costumes, &/c.;
which may serve for proofs and atlas of
these works, published or manuscript. This
tellurian iconography, chiefly American,
consists already in ten great books or port
folios ; having little hope to be enabled to
publish them, I wish they might be de
posited in a great public library, where
they might be consulted.
Instead of beginning this history of the
Americans by generalities, I should wish to
conclude the work by such results ; but it
may frequently be needful to deviate from
this plan, and present results as they hap
pen to arise from the facts and events.
The different parts of the Western Hem-
isphere are often distantly remote, and
insulated, or little connected in their his
torical relations. Austral America and
Boreal America have for instance hardly
any historical connection: they are as
widely separated as China and Europe;
but all the central parts of America are
intimately connected, above all the moun
tain regions from Mexico to Chili, which
offer the same relation of civilization, lan
guages and annalogies, as the Hindu-Euro
pean regions and nations.
The Neotholian Hemisphere contains
many distinct regions ; but the natural or
physical regions are not always identic
with the historical regions. The isthmus
of Panama or valley of Choco does not di
vide the nation as it does the two continents
of America : and many groups of nations
are intermingled throughout. The group
of ancient ARU AC nations extended from
near Florida through the Antilles, Guyana,.
Brazil to Tucuman and Magellania. The
elder group of TALA or atlantic nations
could be traced from the Ohio to Mexico,,
Guatimala and South America in the west.
Notwithstanding this fact, it is useful to
keep in mind the great natural regions of
America, so as to trace through them the
vicissitudes of mankind in ancient and mo
dern times. Thus we find six such regions
in North America, and six in South Ame
rica, with 3 in the Antilles.
1. Boreal region, or region of the lakes,
stretching across North America, from the
straight of Behring and peninsula Alaska
in the west, to Labrador, Canada and Nova
Scotia in the east. It is distinguished by
a rocky soil, many large lakes and millions
of small ones, surrounded near the pole and
on either side by groups of islands. Its
southern limits are undefined, but Lake
Erie forms one of them.
2. The California!! or Oregon region,
stretching from north to south along the
1 Pacific Ocean from Fuca Strait to Mexico
I and Guatimala. It is a region of plains
3. The Mexican region or central moun
tains and table lands from the sources of
the Missouri to Lake Nicaragua, distin
guished by volcanoes, a dry lofty soil, &c.
4. The Missouri region, extending in
vast grassy plains from latitude 50 to the
Gulf of Mexico.
5. The Alleghany region, stretching in
woody hills and mountains from Maine to
Alabama and Illinois. The Ozark moun
tains and the whole of New England appear
detached portions of it.
G. The Litoral Atlantic region, stretch
ing from Long Island to Florida, Mexico,
Yucatan and Honduras, forming a long
but narrow region of level plains, sands
arid marshes, skirted by sandy shores and
The Antilles or West Indies, are all isl
ands ; divided into 3 very natural groups.
1. The large and hilly Islands of Ja
maica, Cuba, Hayti, Boriqircn.
2. The Lucayes or Bahama Islands
north of them, low and chiefly of coral
3. The Carib Islands east and south,
The regions of South America are 1.
That of the Andes or high volcanic moun
tains extending from Santa Marta to the
Island of Chiloe, stretching branches east
as far as Cumana, and east of Peru. The
hills of Panama from Nicaragua to Choco,
are a detached part of it, probably once an
island of the size of Cuba. Also the Ma-
gellanic or Austral region, including the
hills and islands south of Chili, all detached
from the Andes, with the archipelagos of
Chiloe, Chonos, Fuego, Austral, Falkland,
<&c. often volcanic.
2. The Atacama region, or lowlands
along the Pacific Ocean from the valleys of
Darieri and Choco to Chili, distinguished
3. The Pampas or region of unwooded
plains east of the Andes from the strait of
Magellan to Paraguay and Chaco.
4. The region of Brazil, distinguished by
fertile hills, mountains and valleys, forming
a vast group of high lands connected to the
Andes by an isthmus.
5. The region of Guyana or Parima, of
shady hills perfectly insulated (once a large
island) by the plains of the Maranon and
6. The vast equinoctical pi ains of Oronoc
and Maranon, surrounding the mountains
of Parima: where deserts, swamps and
forests are mixed.
These 15 regions are quite natural, dis
tinguished by peculiar physical, and geolo
gical features ; but they do not coincide
with the ethnological regions, where the
American tribes have spread and inter
mixed. It would be difficult to state here
even the most striking of these last. It
will be the aim of this work to seek for
them, and ascertain their limits; which
have often varied anciently : while in mo
dern times the European colonies and
states have invaded them in all directions.
Meantime the population of both Ame
ricas, must be distinguished in ancient and
In proceeding from the known to the
unknown : we ascertain that a multitude of
nations have come to America since 1492,
as colonists or visitors. The principal were
1. Spanish : who have colonized or con
quered from New Mexico to Chili, and from
Florida to Buenos Ayres. But they came
not alone, and have brought along with
them as auxiliaries. 1. Italians, 2. Flemish,
3. Biscayans, 4. Canarians, &,c., while as
slaves 5. Moors of Mauritania, and G. Many
2: Portuguese : who have colonized the
whole of Brazil, and brought there besides
many Negro nations, some Moors, Gypsies,
3. English: Who have colonized the
whole eastern side of North America, Ja
maica and other islands of Antilles, with
parts of Yucatan, Honduras, Guyana, &c.
But they have brought with them, the
Welsh, Scotch, Irish, Germans, Jews and
many African nations.
4. French: They colonized Canada,
Lousiana, Hayti, several Carib islands,
Cayenne in Guyana, &,c., and although
conquered in North America and Hayti,
their language remains. They brought
along the Provencals, Bretons, Basks,
speaking distinct languages, with several
5. Scandinavians : Who partly settled
in North America since the 10th century,
did laterly colonize again Greenland, with
Delaware and some Carib Islands. They
include the Norwegians, Danes and Swedes.
6. Dutch-Hollanders : Sent colonies to
New- York, Surinam, Curazao, &c. brought
Gypsies, Germans and Africans.
7. Russians: Have invaded and partly
settled the north west shores and islands
of North America ; bringing there Cozacs,
Calmucs, and several other Tartarian sub
8. Besides these, several other nations
have laterly visited America, or settled
therein, blending w r ith the above. All the
nations of Europe, even Hungarians, Po-
landers, Greeks and Turks, have been
brought there. Pirates of all nations, even
Algerines, have wandered to America.
Almost all the nations of Africa have heen
led there in slavery. Asia has sent Jews,
Hindus, Gypsies or Zinganis, Chinese and
Tartars : while Oceania has sent Malays,
Madagascar s, Hawayans, &c.
This well known fact of the various and
anomalous modern population of both Ame
ricas within 3 or 4 centuries, will greatly
help us to form a more correct estimate of
the ancient population and colonization of
such vast countries during many thousand
years previous to 1492.
It is not yet suitable to give here a com
plete list of all the ancient nations, who
have, or may have colonized the Western
hemisphere : this can only be done after
wards as a result of the instituted enquiries
on the subject. Meantime I state as highly
probable, even by mere analogy, that all
the nearest nations of the Atlantic or Pacific
Oceans, in the Eastern hemisphere, have
either visited or colonized the Americas ;
particularly from the east, the bold naviga
tors, Atlarites, Pelagians, Phenicians, Ly-
byans, Etruscans, &c., and from the west
the ancient tribes of Tartars arid Chinese,
the Polynesians, &c. We shall throughout
these historical outlines find ample proofs
of this fact, exploding the erroneous belief
that a single nation could have populated
the whole of the Western Hemisphere. It
shall appear also that these early settlers
must have brought along many foreign
tribes, as auxiliaries, vassals or slaves.
In my Atlantic Journal of 1832 will be
found a kind of classification of the ancient
nations of both Americas, divided into 25
groups, 14 in North, 11 in South America.
But this first attempt, cannot be perfect :
it requires a close study of all the American
languages, before we can ascertain cor
rectly all their mutual affinities, and reduce
each to the real parent group. Meantime
this attempt, and the further correction of
it in this work, will become very useful his
torical bases. I give therefore the list of
the 25 groups, with a well known nation
and language as the type, to which others
may be gradually reduced.
In North America 1. Uski or Innuit,
type the Esquimaux.
2. Ongwi, type the Hurons and Iroquois.
3. Linni, type the Linapi or Dela-
4. Wacash, type the Chopunish, and
5. Skerreh, type the Panis.
6. Nachez, type the Cados and Cheti-
7. Capaha, types the Washas or Ozages,
and Dacotas or Sioux.
8. Chactah, types the Chactahs and
9. Otali, Tzulukis or Cherokis.
10. Atalan, type the Tarascas.
11. Otomi, type the Otomis.
12. Anahuac, type the Aztecas.
13. Maya, types the Mayas and Huaz-
14. Cliontal, type the Tzendals and
In South America 15. Aruac, types the
Haytians, Aruacs, Taos, &LC.
16. Calina, types the Caribs and Tama-
17. Puris, type the Maypuris.
18. Yarura, types the Guaraos and Be-
19. Cuna, type the Dariens.
20. Mayna, type the Panos.
21. Maca, type the Muyzcas.
22. Guarani, type the Tupis and Oma-
23. Mara,) type the Quichuas and Ay-
24. Lule, types the Vilelas and Mbayas.
25. Chili, type the Chilians.
Notwithstanding the condensed form of
these outlines, the ample materials to be
brought together, will extend them perhaps
beyond the desirable limits. In order to
lessen this difficulty and yet omit nothing
that is new or important, the work will be
divided into three series.
1st. The annals of South America, where
many generalities will be introduced, that
need not be repeated in the 2d series, on
the annals of North America.
3d. Illustrations of these outlines, where
will be thrown and collected all the colla
teral proofs, documents, vocabularies of
languages, manuscript facts and events,
essential quotations, and results of all the
The Peruvian and Austral regions of
South America will first be introduced,
because of paramount importance. By
the Peruvian region is meant the whole
western part of South America from the
equator to the southern tropic, and by Aus
tral America, the whole of it from that
tropic to the Magellanic Islands. The
gulf of Rio Plata and the river Paraguay,
appear to divide these regions from Brazil,
both physically and historically. Austral
America includes the countries and nations
of Chili, Tucuman, Chaco, Buenos Ayres,
Patagonia and Magellania ; but it shall
often be needful to mention their neighbors,
with whom they are more or less related,
and even distant nations that are not al
ways strangers to them.
The ancient nations of Austral America
are the least known on many accounts, and
those on whom most fables and systems
have been based. It is there that dwell
the Patagons, who have been believed a
peculiar species of giants ; and those tribes
of Chaco, &,c., which Azara has deemed
peculiar men, with languages without affi
nities with any other: which will easily be
proved to be quite false.
If America has had an aboriginal popu
lation, or Autoctons, men born from the
soil : it is there they should be found, dri
ven to the south and those remote climes
by the ancient colonies of other nations;
and they should offer features, complexions,
languages and manners totally different
from any other. If all the Americans de- )
rive from ancient colonies, it is still there
that ought to be found the primitive tribes,
driven on by the subsequent colonies and
tribes. Therefore these Austral tribes are
exceedingly interesting to study as the most
ancient relics of American population.
But the origin of the American nations
and tribes are only to be considered as a
branch of their history. The accounts of
their dispersion and successive settlements,
the history of the events which they have
remembered and transmitted to us by tra
ditions or annals, those of the empires which
have been founded there in ancient and
modern times, the study of their civilization
and ethnography .... offer surely much
more interest, and a wide field of historical
facts or enquiries.
It appears that as soon as we speak of
the ancient Americans, we ought to cut
the gordian knot, and say whence they
came. I do not wish to explain before
hand, all my views on this subject. I wish
to reserve them for the results of the en
quiries to be pursued in this work. Yet to
satisfy the general curiosity expressed on
the subject, I may venture to say that I
have not yet found in either Americas, any
people or tribe totally different from any
other, or without philological affinities : nor
with features, complexions, and other physi
cal characters quite peculiar. But instead,
all the ancient American tribes have nume
rous affinities between each other, and
with races of mankind in the Eastern
hemisphere : both physical and moral, as
well as philological.
If the American nations sprung from
ancient colonies ; it is among the primitive
population of the earth, that their parents
must be sought and found : since America
appears to have been partly peopled even
before the flood. Therefore the systems
which would derive them all from the Phe-
nicians, Jews, Chinese, Tartars of later
ages, or any single people whatever, must
be absurd and improbable : since traces of
many ancient nations are found in this
It has always appeared probable to me
that most of the ancient colonies to Ame
rica, must have come there by the nearest
and most direct way ; the same nearly fol
lowed again by Columbus in 1492 : either
ffom north Africa or south Europe. This
becomes still more probable if there were
formerly a land or large islands in the At
lantic Ocean ; of which we have ample
proofs. Nearly all the nations from Flo
rida and Mexico to Chili, appear to have
reached America from the east, through
the tropical islands or Antilles; but the
ancestors of these emigrating tribes, dwelt
once in Asia, which appears the cradle of
However, many nations of Brazil and Guy
ana are more recent and of African origin ;
while nearly all those of North America
appear to have reached America by the
opposite direction of Eastern Asia, through
Alaska or the Streight of Behring, once an
Isthmus. Therefore the Colonial tribes
came here from the East, and the North
West. It is more doubtful that any came
from the West or Polynesia.
What is now needful, is to trace these
colonies, their travels, epochas, and ascer
tain the nations which they have produced
in both Americas. This I will endeavour
to do, without being prevented by the diffi
culties of the task. I shall always seek to
ascertain the true names of each nation
or tribe : which have often been disguised
under a crowd of nicknames and erroneous
orthographies. These names when thus
restored will often furnish an original key,
to supply the scarcely known languages, or
The Brigands who brought desolation
over both Americas during two centuries,
arid the careless travellers who visited them
in search of wealth, took little notice of the
languages and traditions of their victims
or foes. Thus we have to regret the loss
of many valuable materials, merely indi
cated. However, a few enlightened visitors,
and the missionaries have preserved some
of them. The first attempt of the kind was
the outlines of historical songs and tradi
tions of Hayti, collected as early as 1498
by friar Roman, at the request of Colum
bus ; printed by his son, and by Barcias.
Yet this valuable document has escaped
the notice of nearly all the writers on Ame
rica ! evident proof of utter carelessness or
Piedrahita has given some of the histo
rical traditions of the Muyzcas; Juarros
the annals of the Toltecas of Guatimaia;
Ayeta and Herrera those of the Mayas of
Yucatan. Yet they have been neglected
by our historians. They have merely dwelt,
and even sparingly, on the annals of Mexico
and Peru. We have besides fragments on
the early history of the Ongwis, Linapis,
Apalachis, Caribs, Dariens, and a few more ;
but \ve have to regret the loss of the w r ritten
annals of many civilized nations, the Ta-
rascas, Huaztecas, Zapotecas, Nicaraguas,
Chontals, Chilians, Panos, &c. Some of
which may perhaps be yet partly recovered,
as those of the Ongwis and Linapis have
It is only since last age that the study of
comparative philology has begun to be
appreciated : and quite recently that lan
guages have been made subservient to his
torical researches. Pigafetta had, however,
set the examples as early as 1520 to collect
American vocabularies, of which he gave
two, the Brazilian and g^agon: which
are quite Important, since by" them we
trace both tribes seen by him to the ARUAC
race. For lack of frequent ancient vocabu
laries, we must often grope in the dark ;
but I do not despair to be able to restore
many lost languages, by fragments escaped
from the common ruin. I have already
succeeded with the Taino of Hayti, the
Cahiri of Trinidad, Taiega and Apalaclti
of North America, the Chontal of central
America, the Cotta of Peru, and the Seke
of old Chili ; whereby I shall draw some
Asia has been the country of fables, Af
rica of monsters, and America of systems,
for those who prefer opinions to reality.
The systems and hypotheses of philosophy
or ignorance upon America, exceed all the
Asiatic fables. A crowd of prejudices,
false opinions and fantastic theories, ..have
been asserted on this hemisphere, often
mistaking a small part of it for the whole.
Some have declared all the Americans a
red, beardless, naked and barbarous race,
or a peculiar species of men. Others that
they came out of the ground or from the
clouds, or over a bridge, instead of boats
or on the ice. Others that they are all
Jews, or Malays, or Tartars. Lastly, even
that Eden was here and Noah built the ark
in America ! All these systems and fifty
more brought forth by ignorance or pride,
are based upon the most absurd proofs, or
a few insulated facts : while there are his
torical facts easy to prove that are neglected
Thus it is a positive fact that many
ancient nations of the east, such as the
Lybians, Moors, Etruscans, Phenicians,
Hindus, &c. had heard of America, or
knew nearly as much of it, as we did of
Australia and Polynesia 100 years ago.
It is as certain that America contained
anciently, as even now, a crowd of distinct
nations and tribes ; some of which were
quite civilized, perhaps as much as the
Spaniards led by Columbus; the others
more barbarous, but not entirely savage.
There were but few, if any, real savages in
America, dwelling in woods without social
ties ; most of them were wandering tribes
of fishermen or hunters.
There were formerly in America as now,
tribes of all complexions, as elsewhere :
yellowish, olive, coppery, tawny, redened,
brown, incarnate or white, and even black
ened or negro-like. Tall and dwarfish men
from 8 to 4 feet in size, called giants and
pygmies men with various frames, skulls,
aiid features, of all the sorts found in the
The Americans had long before Colum
bus, large cities ; built of stones, bricks or
wood, with walls, ditches, temples, palaces.
Some of which were of immense size and
population. One of them Otolum near
Palenque was 28 miles long, equal ,to
Thebes, Babylon and Kinoj in size and
monuments. Nearly all the ancient sci
ences and useful primitive arts were known
in America, as well as commerce and navi
gation, symbolic and alphabetic writing,
nearly all the Asiatic religions, &c. The
most civilized nations had even colleges
and universities, canals and paved roads,
splendid temples and monuments, &c.
It would be tedious to designate all what
has not been told, or been very unworthily
noticed, upon America. The whole of
these outlines shall be comments upon the
forgotten facts relating to this third of the
world. Such as are found recorded by
chance in one or few authors, scattered in
1000 volumes, unsought and unnoticed by
nearly all the othef -writers.
Respecting the chronology of the Ame
rican annals, it is rather obscure and doubt
ful ; but perhaps not more so than that of
all ancient nations except the Chinese. It
frequently ascends as far as the floods and
even the creation. The most ancient dates
are found among the Tols or Toltecas and
Atlantes, Mexicans or Aztecas, the Muyz-
cas, Origwis, Linapis, &c. But it is difficult
to make those dates agree among them
selves, or with our oriental dates. However
the American annals may be divided into
great periods, which can be admitted as
certain, and resting points of history at
Here is their tabular view.
I. Ancient history, ending with Colum~
bus in 1492.
1. Antidiluman period, beginning at
the creation, about 6690 years before Co
lumbus according to the Tols, and ending
with the last cataclysm of Peleg, about
3788 years before Columbus.
2. Doubtful period, from that epocha
till the reform of Tol astronomy, 1612 years
before Columbus. This includes several
subordinate periods and epochas.
About 3100 years before Columbus, set^
tlement of the Linapis in Shinaki or Firland
or Oregon in N. W. America.
About 2500 years before Columbus, wars
of the Towancas and Ongwis, the hero
Yatatan, &c. in North America.
3. Certain period, from 1612 till Co
lumbus arrival in 1492. Many lesser pe
riods and epochas.
442, after Christ End of the Tollan
492, Beginning of Atotarho dinasty of
558, Empire of Tol-tecas begins in
Anahuac, and lasts till 942.
840, Beginning of the wars of Zipanas
and Caris in South Peru.
947, Foundation of the kingdom of
Mayapan by Cuculcan in Yucatan.
985, Discovery of America by the
1000, Conquest of Quito by the Skirls.
1105, Beginning of the Incas empire.
1322, Foundation of Tenuchtitlan or
II. Modern history, from 1492 till our
1. Colonial Period, from 1492 till 1776.
2. Independent Period, beginning in
1776. The foundation of the empire of
Brazil in 1822 may begin a subordinate
Each age may bear the name of a wise
legislator or eminent personage : the ages
of modern history are those of 1. Columbus,
2. Las-Casas, 3. William Penn, 4. Wash
ington, 5. Bolivar.
MATERIALS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE AMERI
CANS. Authors, Documents, Sciences.
Languages, Civilization, <$*c.
FAR from following the example of many
American historians, who often take a sin
gle guide for their crude compilations, or
avoid the trouble to consult all the historical
sources, I have taken care in my researches
to employ all the possible means to reach
the truth, and collect all the facts that are
scattered among a crowd of writers. I
have carefully analysed, compared and
judged the materials, details and events
thus procured : nay, all the auxiliary sci
ences have afforded additional fragments
These materials may be divided into 10
series or kinds
1. Works, printed or manuscript.
2. Documents and monuments.
3. Maps, plans, views, &/C. 1
4. Natural sciences.
G. Traditions and annals.
7. Chronology and astronomy.
8. Languages and philology.
9. Religion, mythologies, &c.
10. Civilization, laws and manners..
The writers upon America are very nu
merous ; but mostly defective or local. A
number, however, have attempted to con
sider the whole continent : the principal
among those containing facts upon all parts
of America are chiefly
Herrera, History and Geography of Spa
nish America carried till the year 1554.
Delaet, Historical Geography of Ame
rica, till 1630.
Garcias, Origins of the Americans.
Carli, American Letters. Italian work.
Ogilby, History and Geography of Ame
rica, till 1670.
Raynal, European Settlements in Ame
rica, till 1774.
Alcedo, Geographical Dictionary of Spa
nish America in 1786. Spanish work.
Maltebrun, Improved Geography, 1820.
Touron, History of America, chiefly
ecclesiastical, and incomplete, 14 volumes
1768-70, in French.
Robertson, false History of America or
Spanish Conquests of Mexico or Peru.
The collections of travels by Hackluyt,
Purchas, Harris, Ramusio, Barcias, Pre-
The American researches of Ulloa,
Humboldt, M Culloh, &c.
I have consulted and analyzed all these
general works, and many others of less
account ; but I have not yet read Hervas
nor Compagnone, knowing them merely
The first Bibliotheca Americana or
catalogue of writers on America, was given
by Kennet in 1701 and 1713. Another
appeared in England in 1719 ; a third in
France in 18*20. They contain the names,
authors, editions, dates, &c. of over 300
works relating to America. Robertson
has given a list of nearly as many, which
he pretends to have consulted, although he
neglected what they tell us. Humboldt
has also a catalogue of 250 authors,
consulted by him. In 1831, Aspinwall
published his American Library contain
ing 771 works ; and Warden, in Paris, his
own, containing 977 American works with
133 atlasses and maps.
All this does not complete the account
of books on America ; since I have seen
many omitted in all these catalogues ; al
though I never could meet some mentioned
there. I will carefully notice them, that it
maybe known where I found my materials,
and what may yet have escaped my re
searches. I have already consulted upwards
of 600 writers on both Americas, and there
are at least 1000 already printed, I mean
special or local works connected with his
tory. If we were to add to these the bo
tanists, naturalists, paltry compilers, and
pamphlets, we might make a catalogue of
3000 works on America, her inhabitants
I will refer gradually to them, and have
collected them all in my manuscript illustra
tions ; materials, printed works. There
fore we do not lack printed materials : but
the choice of the best is difficult : since
many works merely consist in fables, blun
ders, errors, hypotheses and their constant
repetitions : which ought to be rejected in
order to gather facts and the truth. But
we must not reject as pyrrhoniams all that
may clash with our ideas and systems : it
is chiefly needful so recall and restore the
events and facts mentioned by the earliest
travellers and observers.
These numerous local writers ought to
be divided into three classes. 1. historians
and annalists, 2. travellers and geographers,
3. antiquarians and philologists. I shall
now merely mention the most useful (which
I have all consulted) upon the Peruvian
and Austral regions of South America.
1st. The principal historians are, 1.
Molina, History of Chili, 2. Funes, Civil
History of Buenos Ayres, Paraguay and
Tucuman, 3. Lavega, History of Peru, 4.
Debrizoffer, history of Abipones, 5. Char-
levoix of Paraguay, 6. Techo, on Ditto,
7, 8. Lozano and Jolis on Chaco, 9. Mura-
tori, and 10. Renger, Paraguay.
2d. The principal writers who have
furnished historical facts, with geographical
and ethnographical materials, are old tra
vellers, 1. Pigafetta and Magellan, 2. Ca
bot, 3. Shmidel, 4. Drake, 5. Cavendish, 6.
Acarete, 7. Knivet, 8. Frezier, 9 Sepp, 10.
Brewer, 11. Nyel, 12. Schmidtrneyer.
The modern travellers are, 1. Azara, 2
D Ulloa, 3. Humboldt, 4. Cook, 5. Byron, 6.
Laperouse, 7. Stevenson, 8. Myers, 9. Heyn,
10. Beaumont, 11. Gillespie, 12. Vidal, 13.
Wedel, 14. King, 15. Morrell, 16. Andrew,
17. Temple, 18. Mawe, 19. Proctor, 20.
Graham, 21. Head, 22. Pernetty.
The principal original geographers and
ethnographers are, 1. Fernandez on Chi-
quitos 1726, 2. Bueno, Ditto 1800, 3. Falk-
ner, on Patagonia 1774, 4. Molina on Chili
and Cuyo, 5. Lozano on Chaco 1733, 6.
Skinner, Memoirs on Peru, 7. Gili, South
3d. Lastly the auxiliary writers on philo
logy, antiquities and other historical branch
es are, 1. Adelung, Vater, Maltebrun, Balbi,
&c., on all American languages, 2. Ameri
can researches of Humboldt, Macculoh
1829. Those of Depaw and Ranking are
shameful, perverting every thing to support
Manuscripts. There are yet many such
extant on America, in the libraries of both
hemispheres. Clavigero gave a long list
of Mexican Manuscripts. Funes quotes
several on Austral America. There are
several extant in Central America and
South America, in Peru and Brazil. Many
have been lost through wilful neglect, or
destroyed at the Spanish Conquest, the
expulsion of Jesuits, &c. Those in the an-
-cient languages, Mexican, Tarasca, Tzen-
dal, &c., are now very rare, and much
esteemed. Those burnt by Zumaraga, the
Mexican Omar, have been often regretted.
Lord Kingborough has lately published
some at a great cost.
The manuscripts which I could consult
on South America are but few. Those on
North America are more numerous and
very important ; particularly the traditions
of the Linapis, Shawanis, &c., they are
chiefly on wood, bark, skins or Mosaic
strings. But I have received several man
uscript vocabularies of the languages of
Guyana, Brazil, Texas, Mexico, &c. and I
have consulted several manuscripts in the
libraries of Philadelphia.
There are, besides, in the public or pri
vate libraries of all the great cities of both
Americas, several interesting historical
works, which have never been published.
There are several in Philadelphia, particu
larly the historical collections of Simetierre.
Often the best or most important works
cannot be printed : while a crowd of paltry
compilations are ushered to deceive the
public. This may be deemed a remainder
of the prevailing ignorance and error. In
stead of appreciating the learned and useful
works, the prevailing taste is for historical
romances and systematic fables. It is
needful to seek these previous labors, which
run the rish of being totally lost, if we will
not have again to blush hereafter for these
I give the list of such among my own
manuscripts, as have been employed to
write this history. They are yet in my
possession, but I wish to see them deposited
in a great public library ; where they might
1. Materials for the history, ethnogra
phy, &c. of the Americans, their annals,
chronology, &/c. 40 books, begun in 1820,
continued ever since, and not yet closed.
2. Vocabularies of the ancient and mo
dern languages of both Americas, symbols,
glyphs, &c, 4 books, begun 1824.
3. Comparitive geography and ethnogra
phy of ancient and modern America, 5
books, with maps, &c, begun 1824.
4 Ancient monuments of North and
South America, compared with the primi
tive monuments of the eastern hemisphere,
3 books and 200 plans, &c., 1822.
5. TELLUS, or the primitive History of
the Earth and Mankind in Protliolia, Oce
ania and Neotholia, with the ancient and
modern general ethnography, 30 books,
begun in 1821.
6. Synglosson, or compared examination
of all languages and nations, 6 books, begun
7. Iconographical Illustrations of all my
historical works and travels, containing
over 1000 maps, plans, views, costumes,
portraits, alphabets, symbols, implements,
&/c., in 10 cartoons, begun 1810.
8. Travels in North America, in 1802 y
8, 4, and from 1815 to 1835. In many
manuscript books and journals.
I have often been apprehensive of the
fate of Boturini, for these interesting manu
script and long researches. This has hap
pened already for one of my manuscripts*
As early as 1825 I sent to the Academy
of Science in Boston, a manuscript of 240
pages, being an account of the materials
yet existing for the history of the nations
and tribes of America before Columbus.
This was for an offered prize of $100: which
was never awarded, although my memoir
was declared the best sent. And instead
of depositing this manuscript in the library
of the American Antiquarian Society as
requested, it has been lost or stolen. If
never recovered, and that the public may
judge of the merits of it, at such an early
period of my historical studies : I will state
the principal results of my enquiries there
in ; which tenor, together with their length,
were the ostensible reasons for not award
ing a prize probably never meant to be
I therein proved in 18^ 5, 1st. that there
are yet materials enough, notwithstanding
the loss of many, for an ancient history of
2. That a complete American history
ought to employ and combine all the ma
terials afforded by geology, geography,
physics, chronology, physiology, ethnology,
archeology, philology, on America, with all
the traditions of the Americans.
3. Geology and physical geography indi
cates the cradles and ancient settlements
of mankind, the revolutions of nature, the
places unfit for population, the means of
access, probable route of colonies, &c. *
4. America has an ancient geography pre
vious to 149 2, which ought to be restored.
5. The coincidence of names of nations
and tribes, afford a comparitive concord
ance, indicating ancient connections or
6. The ancient American population,
must have been derived from the nearest
shores of Africa, Europe and Asia. The
points where all the indications and tradi
tions tend, are the Antilles, next Paria and
Guyana in South America ; Anian or Tol-
lan and Alaska in the N. W with Sucanun-
ga or Greenland to the N. E.
7. The philological solution of historical
affinities, must be sought in the roots of
the languages, their conformity or analo
gies, the number of similar sounds, roots
and words; which are susceptible of a
mathematical calculation, and referable to
the theory of probabilities.
8. Many primitive nations in all parts of
the earth, may thus be proved to have been
akin or related.
9. Noah s flood was nearly general ; but
perhaps not universal. His ark or THBE
was perhaps Thibet : and his 3 sons 3 na
tions saved there.
10. It has been proved that all the anti-
diluvian patriarchs were Nations, their long
ages being the duration of dynasties or
states. This opinion may also be enter
tained of many other ancient patriarchs or
heads of tribes, every where, by the usual
figure of personification.
11. Peleg s flood was volcanic, not so
general as Noah s. There may have been
many successive cataclysms blended in this,
as this has been often mistaken in date for
12. The cradle of the Tulans or Mexican
nations, must have been the Tulan of Asia,
since Turan and Tartary. There are many
places called Tula, all over the earth, indi
cating settlements of Atlantes.
13. The ancient chronology of America
may be restored. Several dates given, a
14. All the races and complexions of
mankind are found in America.
15. America was known to the ancient
nations, particularly the Atlantes, Pela
gians, Phenicians, &c.
16. Some highlands of America were
not covered at Noah s flood, and might be
come the azylums of men, animals, and
vegetation, However, but few nations can
be traced to these azylums in America.
17. The ancient monuments of both
Americas, are similar to the primitive
monuments of Asia, Africa and Europe.
18. The ancient inscriptions of America
can be explained. A key may be found
for all: some are evidently pelagic.
19. The religions of the Americans, were
similar to the primitive religions of the
20. The manners and customs, of the
Americans, are very various, and form no
21. Many American nations were highly
civilized, besides the Mexicans and Peru
vians: skilful in agriculture, and the arts,
having cattle, colleges, &c.
My reward for having ascertained and
proved those facts, was to be denied the
prize, and to have my manuscript mislaid
or lost or stolen ! My historical researches
ever since have continued to confirm nearly
all these facts. (Note 1.)
2. Documents and monuments. The
historical titles and proofs, inscriptions,
medals, coins, charters, &c., which are so
common elsewhere, are but few as yet, in
America, belonging to early times : most
belong to modern history.
There are some ancient inscriptions scat
tered in South America ; but not yet pub
lished. Molina speaks of one on a pyramid
of Cuyo, which late travellers have not
found. Those of Otolum near Palenque
in Central America begin to excite great
attention; and I have sought a key for
Ancient metalic coins and medals, really
Americans, are exceedingly scarce: yet
there are some in Central America. Seve
ral medals, perhaps foreign and indicating
a communication, have been found, but
again lost or neglected ; few have been
figured or explained.
Implements, tools, sculptures, objects of
arts, pottery, weapons, JLC. of the ancient
Americans are found in all the museums ;
but excite little attention, by not being
concentrated, accumulated nor classified.
Many fine specimens of arts have been
melted, or broken and lost. The astronomi
cal stones of the Mexicans and Muyzcas
have been preserved ; but those of Peru
and Central America are lost ; as well as
that beautiful one of the Talegas of North
America, a dodecagone, with 144 hiero
glyphic signs, found in the Ohio, and once
kept in a museum of Philadelphia.
The ancient monuments of both Ame-
ricas, are very numerous, indicating a dense
population in places since become wild and
desolate, as in North America, Guyana,
Brazil, &c. They are most numerous in
the central parts of both Americas, and
lessen towards both ends. Yet they are
met from lat. 45 N. to 45 S. They are
very variable in different parts; by no
means identic, indicating different builders
or many degrees of civilization, from the
rudest arts to the most refined : employing
many materials, earth, clay, gravel, stone,
wood, unbaked bricks ; being either irre
gular cyclopian structures, or regular build
ings of rough or cut stones, pizc or beaten
. We do not know as yet one half of those
in existence, and many have never been
described nor figured. Yet they afford
every where, one of the most evident and
certain base of historical researches, con
firming traditions, or revealing the seats of
former empires, their civilization, &c.
They consist chiefly in mounds, altars,
tumuli or tombs, ruined cities, villages and
forts, temples and dwellings ; but we find
besides in various places, traces of ancient
palaces, bridges, roads, causeways, canals,
mines, dromes, baths, pyramids, towers,
pillars, rocking stones, walls, wells, pits &c.
They generally resemble the primitive
monuments of the same kind, met with in
the eastern hemisphere, from England and
Ireland to Mauritania and Africa, extend-
ing east to Lybia, Syria, Russia, Persia,
Tartary, &,c. They have less resemblance
with the monuments of Egypt, Greece,
Rome, India and China ; yet some kinds
somewhat assimilate. In fact, there are,
throughout both Americas, three very dis
tinct classes of monuments, indicating dis
tinct arts and architecture.
The first or rudest, assimilate nearly to
those yet used by the rudest tribes in the
north or in Brazil, Antilles, &c., indicating
a similar barbarous state.
The second or primitive, is known by
using wood and earth instead of stones for
The third or most refined, employed
stones, often well cut as in Mexico, Central
America, Peru, &c., and indicates arts
nearly equal to those of Egypt and India.
Besides such great monumental remains;
there are lesser antiquities ; fragments of
sculpture, statues, idols, painting, Mosaic,
&c., either in metals, stones, pottery, beads,
&c., found every where mixed with the
But the most singular and dubious relics
of antiquity, are subteraneous or in excava
tions : these are in caves, mines, pits, &c.:
while under ground are found trees, stumps,
charcoal, ashes, shells, pavements, walls,
houses, &c. that must have been buried by
alluvions, diluvions or new formed soil. It
has been surmised or ascertained that some
may be antidiluvian : although those in
deep alluvial soils, near streams, and con
nected with graves, may have been buried
by men, or fluvial inundations. Mummies,
skeletons and bones, with human apparel
and implements have been found in caves,
evidently buried there by human means,
and not by floods. Human remains are but
seldom if ever connected with the organic
remains of the soil and caves, even of the
latest geological date.
3. Geography, Maps, fyc. The knowl
edge of the regions and localities inhabited
by mankind, or where colonies are sent,
empires founded, is needful to history, in
order to understand and treat the events
and migrations. The physical configura
tion of the land, the climates, plains, moun
tains and streams, have a great influence
on civilization and communications. Physi
cal geography is constant and invariable:
while civil or ethnographical geography is
constantly fluctuating in limits and names.
If we had complete series of maps by
chronological order upon America; we
should find therein the materials for a com
parative historical geography, and succes
sive ethnography, showing the gradual revo
lutions of mankind. The old maps of
America, those of Laet, the old geogra
phers &c. are very valuable for this object.
Many travellers in America, have given
original maps, which furnish similar mate
rials. I have chiefly used for Peru and
Austral America, the maps of Laet, Aca-
rete, D Anville, Molina, Falkner, Cochranc,
Wedel. the Jesuits, &c. Among the modern
general maps, relating to South America,
the Spanish maps of 1810 and 182*2, the
English of 1815, the French of 1830, the
latest American of Tanner, &c. By those
materials I have heen able to trace and fix
four periods of American geography, 2 an
cient and 2 modern.
I. Primitive geography of America.
II. Ancient ditto, or between 1400 and
III. Modern colonial geography.
IV. Modern independent geography.
I have formed Mpt. maps of the two
first periods, which shall be published grad
ually, or in my Illustrations of the Ancient
Geography of America. We have thou
sands of maps on the early geography of
the Eastern Hemisphere, and no one as yet
on the Western Hemisphere ! to show the
respective limits and positions of Ancient
Empires, Nations, Cities, &c., except Clavi-
gero s map of Anahuac at the Spanish
conquest, those of Hayti, Laet, &c.
We have the plans of Ancient Mexico
and Cuzco; but lack those of Tiahuanaco,
Otolum, and many more important for an
cient history. Several plans of ancient
sites of civilization have been given, along
with those of monuments. I have many
in Mpt. yet unpublished. The greatest
part of modern cities, are built on ancient
sites, from Mexico to Chili. In North
America, the same happens with Cincinnati,
Louisville, Pittsburg, St. Louis, Philadel
phia, Savannah, &c. The views of ruined
cities, and those of actual cities, are partly
historical, connected with the knowledge
of gradual American civilization.
Many ancient names of islands, lakes,
streams and mountains, are preserved in
actual names. Such are Cuba, Hayti
Ontario, Erie, Titicaca Ohio, Alatamaha,
Maranon, Parana, Rivers. Alleghanies,
Andes, Parima, Mountains, &c. When
the names have been changed, it is the duty
of the historical geographer to compare
the old and new names.
The Mexicans and other civilized ancient
nations, could draw and paint maps. Even
our North American tribes can draw rude
maps on skins or bark. Some of these are
preserved in museums; but none have ever
been published : although some are pretty
correct and deserving it.
4. Natural Sciences. They are now
becoming sisters of history. Geology is
connected with geography. Botany and
Zoology, acquaint us with trees, plants and
animals, which were used in the arts and
agriculture at different periods. The Asi
atic origine of maize, called maza by He-
siod and known to the Pelagians (Hughes
Greece,) has been unperceived by Hum-
boldt and many others, although it throws
some light on the early migrations and
communications of tribes. Maize was cul
tivated in Assyria, West Tartary, North
Africa and Java, before 1492, as asserted
by Marco Polo, Crawford, Raffles. Gebe-
lin, &c. (3)
America had anciently several cereal
plants, besides maize, two kinds of indi
genous wheat and barley in Chili. The
Quinoa and Zizania, the rice of South and
North America. Many roots, beans, seeds,
fruits and flowers, were cultivated from
Canada to Chili. Native dies were abund
ant, the indigo and annato were natives.
Red and yellow cochineal were nursed and
collected. Many peculiar kinds of cotton,
silks, hemp, flax, agave, palm, &c, were
cultivated or collected to use for cloths,
threads, ropes, &c.
Paleontology, a new science, seeks for
the remains of animals dwelling on earth,
before mankind. America has already
afforded the huge mastodons, elephants,
megatherium, megalonyx, as primitive land
animals, arid many large reptiles, crocodiles
of streams and lakes.
American Zoology is very peculiar: a
few arctic quadrupeds, birds and insects ex-
cepted ; all the animals of this hemisphere
are peculiar to it. Reptiles almost entirely
such, even in the North. All the American
monkeys form distinct species. The tropi
cal animals of the two hemispheres are
distinct, even often in genera. Out of 33
quadrupeds formerly domesticated in Amer
ica, the dog only may be deemed a stranger:
and it had even many American varieties.
The domestic quadrupeds of ancient
America were 33, while only 25 in Asia,
Africa and Europe. Among them were 4
species of Vicunia, 4 of Agutis, 2 deer,
2 hogs, 10 monkeys, &c. See my disserta
tion on the domestic animals of both hem
ispheres, 1832. Americans had also tamed
32 birds or fowls, as many as Asia, &c., and
even some reptiles, fishes, insects, &c., had
become domestic: altogether 112 in Amer
ica and only 80 in Europe, Asia, &c., before
American botany offers many peculiar
regions ; in the North only, akin to Asiatic
or European botany ; but becoming quite
distinct in the tropics, still more so in Aus
tral America. Since 1492 the European
colonists have brought many plants, that
are become spontaneous from Canada to
Chili: these must be carefully separated
from the ancient indigenous plants.
The A meriean Floras are nearly as many
as the 15 natural regions already indicated,
each having a focal seat or cradle in some
range of mountains. They become richer
or more abundant in species within the
tropics, decreasing to the North and South.
Trees and palm abound there, and disap
pear near the poles, the palms are unknown
beyond the 36 dgerees North and South.
The equator has 500 species of trees , in
latitude 40 N. and S. only 100 kinds are
found, or even less. Social plants arid
grasses abound in plains, and in the North
dwindle to mosses and lichens.
Trees were early tools of civilization,
affording timber, fuel, dies, houses, boats,
weapons, &c. Fruit trees afforded food in
abundance : even the tribes of North Amer
ica near latitude 40 d. had 40 kinds of na
tive wild fruits, and had begun to plant
orchards of plumbtrees, peachtrees, crab-
4rees, nut-trees. They knew how to make
oils of nuts, to dry the fruits, make sugars
out of maples and other trees.
Fish has always afforded an ample sup
ply of food to early nations, whence the
preference to dwell near streams, Lakes
and shores. Notwithstanding the swimming
rambles of fishes, it is only the pelagic or
oceanic tribes of them that are common to
both hemispheres. Most of the resident
shore fishes of America are peculiar species.
Still more so with lacustral and fiuviatile
fishes. These are divided into peculiar
regions. Our northern lakes form one ; ami
almost every large stream has a peculiar
generation of finny tribes : such are the
Mississippi, Maranon, Parana, the Atlantic
streams and rivers, those of Brazil, &c.
Minerals abound in both Americas. It
was gold and silver that drew hither the
greedy Spanish freebooters. The civilized
nations knew mining, smelting, casting and
forging. They used gold* silver, copper,
brass, lead, &c.; collected and prized gems,
emeralds, agats, volcanic glass, &c. Even
the less civilized tribes of North America
used copper and lead, clays for pipes, pot
tery, &c. Iron was scarce because so hard
to melt, and highly prized ; but iron-rings
have been found as jewels around the wrists
Metalic coins were little known except
in Central America ; but bits of silver, gold,
tin, iron, were used as such. The other
mediums of exchange were skins, mats,
nuts, cacao, shells, beads, mosaic works,
,c. Commerce was well known to many
nations; traders went 500 miles to exchange
commodities in Florida, Mexico, Yucatan,
Peru, &c. Navigators went by sea for the
same purpose all over the Antilles, coast
of Peru, and in the great streams. It is
thus that were found many strange and
foreign objects, jewels, medals, metals, &c.,
all over America, and in early tombs.
5. Ethnography. This new science
which undertakes to describe nations,
reckons already many peculiar branches.
Anthropography or the knowledge of phy
sical mankind. Philology or the compara
tive study cf human speech and languages.
Besides the nameless branch attending to
the moral ideas, arts, institutions, manners,
civilization, governments and religions of
mankind; which might be called moral
All these studies become the philosophy
of history, and shall duly command my
attention. Some writers neglect them
altogether ; others, like Robertson, do not
know how to collect and accumulate facts
instead of systems: Rollin has shown in
his Ancient History, how useful moral
ethnography may be as an auxiliary: al
though he omitted philology and physical
I have studied the men of all the parts
of the world, in order to know and com
pare them, better than had been done.
All the errors on the histories of nations,
proceed commonly from the slender or
partial views acquired or admitted by the
writers. There is much to glean on the
ethnography of modern nations, and there
from we may ascend to ancient ethnogra
phy. It would be needful to study well the
physical and moral features of all ; the
shapes of bodies, skulls, faces and limbs ;
the complexions of the skin, hairs and eyes ;
with the casual or permanent varieties.
But, above all, we must better study all
the spoken languages and dialects. It is
strange that we hardly know r anything, and
sometimes nothing at all, on the languages
of many existing tribes, with whom we have
intercourse in both Americas. It would
be desirable to procure at least a vocabu
lary of 100 essential words, in each. Such
words, including the cardinal numbers, will
goon become the key of ethnographical
philology. While the additional study of
phonology or sounds of languages, their
idioms and grammars, their roots, and
verbs, the alphabets, glyphs and symbols
used to communicate ideas, will combine
to furnish the complete knowledge of phi
lology as a separate science. Although
I have not always carried so far my re
searches; I did so for a few, applying
chiefly myself to the essential features of
languages ; and the unexpected results will
American anthropography will teach
that there were men of all sizes, features
and complexions, in this hemisphere be
fore 1492 : notwithstanding the false asser
tions of many writers, who take one nation
for the whole American group. The
Uskihs, the Puruays, the Farias, the Chons,
&c. were as white as the Spaniards, 50
such tribes were found in South America ;
while many tribes of Choco, the Manabis,
the Yaruras, &c., were as black as negroes.
All the other shades of brown, tawny and
coppery, were scattered every where.
There was not a single red man in Ame
rica, unless painted such. Some tribes
had scanty beards as the Tartars, Chi
nese, Berbers, &,c., others bushy beards.
The Tinguis or Patagons were 7 or 8 feet
high, and the Guaymas only 4 or 5 feet.
6. Traditions and Annals. Many
American nations preserve a memory of
historical events by unwritten traditions,
repeated from fathers to sons ; or commu-
nicated orally by the priests, chiefs or
elderly men. Many are preserved yet to
this day, by frequent repetitions, being
embodied in songs, hymns, maxims, tales,
drawings, or even symbolic figures and
signs. Many of those traditions are pre
cious for history, notwithstanding the fa
bles, allegories, metaphors, personifications,
&/c., which partly conceal them or render
the meaning obscure. We must learn to
decipher them as we do old inscriptions
Although many such are now nearly lost
for us, by the extinction of the living books,
who kept the remembrance : there are
many already collected, and of which we
ought to make a good use. But there are
as many more, which have never been
collected nor printed. I have collected
many such in North America in manu
script. It often happens that the American
tribes will not communicate them to their
foes or oppressors ; but their friends and
allies may hope to receive the deposit of
them. Every enlightened traveller ought
to seek for them wherever he goes. Yet
after being acquired, they are sometimes
lost again, by neglect. I have known some
learned and unlearned men despise them
equally as Indian Stories, because they
despise the ancient American race. There
are, however, as yet many historical songs,
poems and tales to collect among all the
American tribes, which falling in good
hands cannot fail to attract notice and be
employed usefully. Every one who ne-
flects or destroys them acts as a vandal,
lalcolm has said at the outset of his his
tory of Persia, that we ought never to
neglect the original notions of a people on
its origin, or early history, since therein is
found the germ and spring of their subse
quent conduct, actions and opinions.
My illustrations shall contain many un
published or forgotten traditions, whereof
I shall avail myself in all my historical
annals and researches. I consider those
of the Uskihs, Dinriis, Ongwis, Linapis,
Shawanis, Cados, Natchez, Ozages, Ata-
kapas, Apalachians, &c., as highly import
ant for the annals of North America. The
same may be said of the Mexicans, Zapo-
tecas, Mayas, Toltecas, Chols, &,c., for
Central America. Of the Haytians, Cu
bans and Caribs for the Antilles. And in
South America those of the Muyzcas,
Cumanans, Tamanacs, Popayans, Peru
vians, Chilians, Brazilians, Abipons, &c.
7. Chronology and Astronomy. These
two sciences always go together, and form
a double key of history. The American
chronology is by no means fixed before
1492, and requires a skillful hand to pre
serve and compare all the heterogenous
dates heretofore collected. I shall attempt
to elucidate it gradually; but may often be
compelled, as in geology, to relate only
successive events without dates, and merely
referred to a series of gradual facts. In
Austral America, we are told that none
had notions of astronomy and dates, except
the Chilians ; yet their chronology begins
only in 1450. I doubt this : I rather be
lieve that their oral traditions have been
neglected, as well as those of their neigh
In Peru, there are many positive dates,
yet I was the first to reduce them to chro
nological order. In Brazil and Guyana,
but few dates are found. The Muyzcas
had very early dates, yet few have been
preserved ; much obscured by personifica
tions of dinasties, and Pietrahita begins
their real annals only in 1490, or 45 years
before the Spanish invasion. In the Antilles
the dates are quite loose, and difficult to
reduce even to a serial order.
But in Central and Mexican America,
we find many early dates with a regular
chronology. Yet some are extravagant or
contradictory. I shall endeavour to eluci
date them, so as to reduce the whole to
order. They must form the base of a
regular American chronology, that ascends
by dates to the flood and creation. In
Yucatan the first regular date only reach
to 940 after Christ.
In North America, where the smallest
number of dates existed; we have unex
pectedly and quite lately, found that many
ancient dates could be procured. Cusick
has published those of the Ongwi traditions,
and I have ascertained those of the Lina-
pis. Both of which reach to the flood and
creation, and afford series of available
dates as early as 1600 years before our
era ; thus nearly as ample as those of the
TOL-tecas, and as plain in some instances.
Astronomy was cultivated by all the civ
ilized nations of ancient America. They
had cycles of 144, 104, 60, 52, 20, 15 and
13 solar years. Humboldt has well w r rit-
ten on that subject ; but much remain to
be gleaned. The northern tribes reckon
by generations as the Greeks, the Polyne
sians, &c., and by winters instead of years,
moons instead of solar months. They had
also a cycle of 60 years. In Central Ame
rica, &c. the months were of 20 days,
including 4 weeks of 5 days. But the Pe
ruvians had months of 27 days, or 3 weeks
of 9 days as the Etruscans. The Muyzcas
small weeks of 3 days, &c. No where in
ancient America, was found the sabatical
week of days, based on the 7 planets and
the 4 quarters of a lunation. This is re
markable, as evincing a remote antiquity,
and separation before this week was adopted
in Egypt, India. Syria, Celtica, &c.
Until 120 years before Christ the TOL-
tecas reckoned only 365 days in the solar
year, as the primitive nations of Asia : then
they added the hours to the year. This
forms their astronomical era. The Muyz
cas had a very complicated astronomy, and
three kinds of years. The usual was of 20
moons ,and the ecclesiastical of 37 moons.
The horal division unknown in many parts of
America, was of 4 hours in the day for the
Muyzcas and Mexicans, elsewhere of 5, 10
and 20. The 24 hours and the Zodiac of
12 signs with 360 degrees were not known.
The Mexican Zodiac had 13 signs and
Arithmetic is intimately connected with
astronomy. A complete decimal numera
tion was known to all the civilized Ameri
can nations, and even to the northern tribes.
The most rude tribes reckoned by 5 or the
manual mode; there are traces abo of a
binary numeration, the most simple of all :
while others had complex calculations by
13 and by 20 or scores. We find no trace
of any by 7, and but slight indications of a
ternary numeration by 3 and 9. All these
American modes of reckoning may thus be
reduced to the binary, by two or pairs ;
and the quinary or manual by the five fin
gers, of which the decimal is the double,
and by 20 the quadruple.
8. Languages. They are becoming one
of the most important aids in history. When
the annals are ample and clear, the exami
nation of the languages is merely a sup
plement to historical knowledge ; but when
they are obscure, mutilated or totally lost ;
languages then supply more or less to their
defects or loss. Their comparative study
furnish us new lights to ascertain the ori-
gines, parentage, dispersions, colonies, alii-
ances, wars, &/c., of the nations thus depriv
ed of written annals or even traditions.
They serve also to rectify the imperfect
annals or the fabulous traditions. This
study may lead besides to trace the man
ners, religions, intercourse, arts and scien
ces of nearly all nations ; since the proper
languages of each people offers a picture
of the civilization, acquired or borrowed
knowledge, modes of life, &c. of each.
It is above all in both Americas that this
study is indispensable in historical resear
ches : I will therefore apply to languages
in all cases, and make constant use of them ;
and they will unfold new facts quite un
known, although very important, Histori
cal lights shall thereby be thrown on many
obscure subjects, whence astonishing and
unexpected results may spring, in which I
shall depend as much as upon mutilated and
By taking into view all the American
languages or as many as are already known,
we shall easily dispel the errors and absurd
systems of philosophers and philologists,
who taking only a few as samples of the
whole, have either deemed all the Ameri
cans, as many Jews, or Tartars, or Atlan-
tes, or sprung from the ground, and so on.
Now the fact is that these writers have never
taken the trouble to compare the numerous
American languages and dialects, reduce
them to groups, and seek their affinities
Adelung and Vater had once stated with
out proof, that nearly 1200 languages ex
isted in America. Balbi has reduced them
to 423, of which 212 in Sonth America;
but they can be much further reduced, most
of them being mere dialects. The whole
may be comprised in 25 groups of langua
ges, or even less; which were certainly
identic in 25 languages 2 or 3000 years ago :
and all of which have astonishing affinities
with the groups of the eastern hemisphere,
so as to indicate a parentage 4 or 5000
Vater and Maltebrun have given a few
hundred examples of such analogies : and
the systematic writers have supposed that
they had exhausted the comparisons. Yet
a single language, the Chilian, has by itself
more affinities with the languages of Europe,
than all those mentioned by Vater and
others, put together ! The foreign or trans
atlantic affinities of American languages,
vary from 10 to 70 per cent, according to
the nations. If we suppose that there are
400 languages in America, and as many in
the eastern hemisphere, and each to have
about 2000 roots or essential words only ;
while the mean affinities are only 25 per
cent : we shall find as many as 200,000
affinities ! out of America, in every Amer
ican language ; and in all the 400, as many
as 80 millions ! instead of the paltry reck
oning of 1000 or so. All this is suscepti-
ble of mathematical proofs, and shall be
unfolded gradually in these pages.
The theory about the common exclusive
grammatical structure of all the American
languages, is equally erroneous and based
upon partial facts. Instead of all the
American languages being polysynthetic by
amalgamating words, we find in America
many mixt forms, and even the pure mono
sylabic : while the amalgamation of words
prevails more or less in Europe and Africa ;
chiefly in the Bask, Italian dialects, Greek,
Berber and other Atlantic dialects, the
Negro languages, those of Caffraria, the
Sanscrit and all the derived languages.
It had been asserted that no American
language was monosylabic : yet Balbi states
that the Guarani and Maya are such ; Na-
sera has lately proved the same of the
Othomi. Thus we have at least 3 such
American groups of languages. But there
are more ; nay many American languages
have monosylabic roots, even among the
most amalgamated groups.
The most obvious grammatical classifi
cation of American languages, has escaped
the acuteness of philologists. I find it in the
epithetic structure, or relative position of
ideas. Under this view all the languages
arrange themselves in three great classes
or groups. 1. Regular, 2. Resupinate,
1. The Regular is the most simple and
natural form : where the roots or nouns are
prefixed, and the adjuncts or adjectives,
expressing epithetes or qualities follow or
are added. This group includes in the
Eastern Continent 1. All the Semetic lan
guages, Arabic, Hebrew, &c. 2. All the
Atlantic and Egyptian languages. 3. All
the Celtic and Cantabrian languages. 4.
All the Polynesian and Malay languages.
5. The Bhotiya and many languages of
Thibet. 6. Most of the INt-gro languages.
7. Yakut of Siberia, &c.
In America this group includes my groups
1. Innuit or Uski. 2. Ongwi. 3. Capaha.
4. Chactah. 5. All the languages related
thereto in North-west America, the Ka-
luchi, Mandan, &c. 6. All the Guarani
languages of South America, and perhaps
many others, Mayna, Mobima, &c.
2. The Resupinate or Reflexed Group:
where the roots or nouns substantive are
reversed, following the adjective or epi
thetes, which are prefixed. This second
mode of uniting ideas prevails 1. In all the
languages of China and Tartary. 2. In
all the Teutonic languages German, Swede,
English. 3. In most of the Thracian, Illy-
rian, Greek and Slavonic languages. 4.
In all the Turkish languages of Turan,
Bokhara, Turkey. 5. The Newari of Ima-
laya. 6. The Qua or Hottentot of South
In America, it is the most pre vailing form ,
found in my groups 1. Linni or LinapiF.
2. Otali or Cheroki. 3. In all the Mexi-
can and Othomi languages. 4. Chontal.
5. Skereh or Pani and Shoshoni, of North
America, and in South America. 6. Chili.
7. Yarura. 8. Mbaya and probably many
more : although hardly indicated by the
3. Mixt .Form, which employs or adopts
more or less the two former modes ; although
there is always a prevailing form, that in
dicates the original mode of uniting ideas.
This mixt form appears 1. In the Sanscrit
and all derived languages. 2. In the Zend
and Persian languages of Iran. 3. In the
Pelagic arid Italic languages, the Latin,
Italian, French, Spanish, Greek. 4. The
, While in America it is found 1. In the
Aruac languages. 2. The Muyzca. 3. The
Peruvian languages, &c. of South Ameri
ca, and in North America. 4. The Atalan.
5, Mizteca. 6. Qpata, and probably some
This comparative classification of lan
guages, will greatly help future investiga
tions. It will show the improbability of the
two opposite mcdes of annexing ideas hav
ing been entertained by the same people at
any time ; while the mixt form evinces amal
gamations of ancient nations. We have
thus acquired another clue to trace primi
tive connections, another available mean
to pursue the human steps on earth.
9. Religions and Mythologies. The
human opinions on the past and future form
every where ample themes of thoughts and
actions. From revelations, inspirations,
oracles, wisdom and priestcraft comingled,
have arisen all the worships, and rites, dog
mas and creeds, swaying the human mind,
through hope or fear, love or hatred. The
history of religious ideas, is in fact the his
tory of civilization, since they have sprung
together in social men. Nearly all the re
ligions of Asia (which from hence have
spread throughout the earth along with
mankind) were found in America: except
the modern creeds. But the traces of Ju
daism and Budhism were very faint and
local. Mahometism was unknown, Bra
in inism hardly known. Christianity or some
of its rites are traced to Yucatan only, and
may arise from other sources. The most
prevailing worships were the primitive Sa-
heism, Solar worship, Polytheism, Dualism
or Manicheism, Shamanism or worship of
Spirits, Idolatry, and Fetichism or animal
worship. We find throughout America
many modifications of these creeds : with
several complex mythologies, more or less
analogous to eastern dogmas.
The investigation of these American re
ligions affords not only an insight into the
ancient civilization, but many proofs of an
cient communications with Asia or Africa.
Throughout North America the Dualism,
mythologies and fabulous traditions point to
a connexion with Tartary. In Florida,
Mexico and Yucatan, begin to appear the
Solar worship, and a cruel idolatry foreign
to it. This Solar worship appears in a
purer form in North America, as far as Peru.
While in the Antilles, Guyana, Brazil and
Chili, prevailed several worships of heaven
ly and terrestial spirits ; somewhat akin to
the primitive idolatry of Africa, Europe,
Iran, India, China and Polynesia.
American religions admitted, like many
others, of Priests, oracles, temples, shrines,
pilgrimages, holy places, sacrifices, expia
tions, confessions, offerings, hymns, venera
tion for animals, men and stars. Idols
painted or sculptured in wood, pottery,
stone, metals, &c.; bloody rites by human
sacrifices, scarifications, circumscision, &c.
But none of these practices were general,
some were quite local and circumscribed.
Thus circumscision was only used by the
Mayas of Yucatan, the Calchaquis of Tu-
cuman, &c. Traces of a triple god or
Indian Trimurti have been met from Ohio
to Peru ; but it was no where the prevailing
religion. As the same idea was found
among the Celts and Polynesians, it may
have come by the east rather than Polyne
sia in the west.
10. Civilization and Manners. This
completes the history of all nations. When
their annals are well known, it becomes a
very proper appendix to them; when they
are not, it is a very needful supplement to
the traditions, &c. But we must not make
any history consist merely in such an ac-
count, as often done by negligent writers.
The manners and customs of every people,
are so fluctuating, liable to be changed, or
improved by civilization, imitation, arts and
sciences, &c.; that they cannot afford any
test of connections. They are often bor
rowed, from neighbors or strangers, disused
after awhile by whims or wars, invented to
suit the climate and productions it may
afford. We have positive proofs that the
Europeans have since 1492 greatly modified
the customs of all the tribes they conquered
or visited. This must have happened for
merly also, by other visits or communica
tions. Yet, notwithstanding the uncertainty
of the origin and duration of the primitive
American customs, they must be studied,
as one of the sources and objects of history.
We find, in ancient America, nearly all
the forms of social civilization and manners
of the east. But the Nomadic life with
camels, oxen and sheep, was unknown, as
well as those animals. The American
cattle or lamas, &c. of South America,
hogs of Coriana, dogs and rabbits of
Mexico, deers of Florida, buffalos of Taos,
were kept by sedentary civilized tribes.
The Nomadic wandering tribes of America
w r ere chiefly hunters and fishermen : scat
tered around the agricultural nations,
spreading from Canada to Chili.
All the kinds of governments were known
in America: Theocracy, despotism, mo
narchy, oligarchy, and democracy. But
the most prevailing were theocracy among
the civilized nations, oligarchy among the
barbarous nations: with two peculiar mo-
dificaVons, of double kings as among Arabs,
civil and military; and chiefs of families
or tribes, as among all primitive nations.
Queens were known to but few tribes, al
though the female line w r as often hereditary.
Written laws and codes were known to the
Tol-tecas, Mexicans, Mayans, Muyzcas,
Panos, Peruvians, &c. Oral laws were
elsewhere preserved by priests or magis
Polygamy prevailed among some tribes
or castes, but was not universal. The 4
castes of Indians are distinctly found in
nearly all the civilized nations, often modi
fied into priests, nobles, vassals and slaves.
The arts of music, medicine, smithery,
painting, sculpture, architecture, agricul
ture, pottery, &c., were well known to
nearly all. The sciences of geometry,
geography, botany, astronomy, &c., were
cultivated from Mexico to Peru, even
taught in schools and colleges ; with the
arts, the laws, the rites, and history of the
Marsden has well distinguished several
degrees of civilization in Asia. If no Ame
rican nation had reached the Greeks and
Romans, or our modern polished and im
proved civilization ; it is not extraordinary.
But the Peruvians, Muyzcas, Tol-tecas,
Mexicans, Talascas, &c., were nearly
equal to the Chinese, Egyptians and Hin
dus in civilization; not far removed from
the European civilization of the 15th cen
tury : nay, in some things superior. The
second degree of American civilization
found in Chili, Florida, Cumana, the An
tilles, Popayan, the Linapis, Omaguas &c.
was equal to that of the Arabs, Malays,
Celts, Cantabrians, Pelagians, &c. While
the third degree found in all the barbarous
nations, Innuit or Esquimaux, Shoshonis,
Caribs, Brazilians, &c. was not worse
than what we find among the Fins, Lap
landers, Tartars, Sames, Negroes and
Individual property in land was almost
unknown in America; but feodal and tribal
property well understood. Common pro
perty of tribes and villages over their ter
ritories, was the most usual tenure, modified
by wars, conquests, tributes. Individual
property existed only for tenements and
personal property. Warfares, marriages
and funerals were very different in every
nation. The weapons of war were clubs,
arrows, darts, lances, axes, Macana swords,
Sarbacanes or blowing tubes, slings, nooses,
thronged balls, &c. as elsewhere. There
was a peculiar diplomacy, with heralds,
envoys, messengers. Shields, towers, forts,
walls, ditches, were used for defence, be
sides Estopils a peculiar quilted armor.
Flags, banners, and standards were known.
The calumets, leaves or green feathers,
council fires, arid white flags were emblems
of peace. Alliances and confederations
existed from earliest times, also the adop
tion of tribes and prisoners. Slavery was
hardly known; but vassalage much ex
tended over conquered tribes.
Dresses and ornaments were quite va
rious. Seal skins used by the Innuit.
Deer skins and furs by the tribes of North
America. In tropical America many
tribes went nearly naked, with a mere
apron or pagne of cotton or grass cloth.
But the civilized nations were decently
clothed with cotton shirts and feather man
tles. The Poncho is a true American
dress known from Mexico to Chili, hardly
known out of America except Polynesia. (4)
Women wore long pagnes or gowns.
They made cloths of lama wool in Peru;
of cotton, hemp, nettles, grass, feathers &c.
there and elsewhere ; either twisted, plait
ed or woven. The Peruvians and Chilians
had a peculiar loom and plough. Cotton
looms were used in Florida, Mexico, and
all over South America, even by the Ca-
ribs to make hamacs or hanging beds.
Among some nations women had the most
labor to perform ; yet even the men as
sumed hunting, making canoes, huts, wea
pons, &c. More civilized tribes worked
together in the fields : The proud and war
like employed vassals or slaves.
Painting the body or face, was usual
among many nations, but not general. It
was useful against heat and flies, or was
used to inspire love or terror. Ornaments
to the head, ears, nose, lips, wrists, legs r
&c., were more or less adopted by men
and women. The hair was usually worn
long ; but many tribes cut it in various
ways, as a crown or tuft. The beard even
when scanty was deemed unbecoming by
many tribes, and totally eradicated ; but
some tribes wore beards. The head was
often left uncovered ; but hats were worn
in the N. W. and Central America, tur
bans in Paria and Florida, feather crowns
in the tropics, Lautas or diadem-bands in
Peru and the Andes. Shoes and gloves
were unknown; but sandals, leggings, lea
ther clods, and mocassins or slippers of
various substances, commonly used ; with
singular snow shoes of bark in winter by
NOTES OF CHAPTER II.
1. In 1824, 1 published my first essay
on American history, a pamphlet on the
Ancient History of Kentucky , or Central
North America, before 1770. Although
it was a mere rude sketch, it contains
many important historical facts. I was
too little advanced then in philological
studies, to give it their support, and many
of my surmises must be rectified by it.
My late researches have also greatly im
paired the general belief of the Tartarian
origin, and western route of the Mexican
2. I published this presumed key in
1832 in my Atlantic Journal; but many
accurate comparisons are yet required to
confirm my surmises, although the Lybian
analogies are evident.
3. In Hughes Travels in Sicily, Greece
and Albania in 1813--14, published 1820,
we find this fact about Hesiod s mention of
maize, used by the poor in mush and cakes
by the early Greeks : the modern Greeks
call it Arabo-site, Arabic corn, in Italy it
is called Grano-turco, or Turkish-corn:
having reached Greece and Italy through
the Arabs, and not from America. It has
been cultivated in Java, Central Africa,
Soudan, &c. from time immemorial, having
native names in the Negro languages. Ge-
belin thinks it was known in Assyria. Polo
found it in Tartary in the 13th century.
Frazer lately saw it almost wild in the
Imalaya mts. : it has never been found
quite wild in America.
4. The Poncho is a long strip of cloth,
with a hole in the middle for the head, the
ends hanging before and behind, often fas
tened on the sides. It was used by the
ancient Mexicans, the Muyzcas, Peruvians
and Chilians. It has been adopted as quite
convenient by the Spanish colonists, and
is very becoming when ornamented.
AMERICAN CATACLYSMS or Considera
tions on the Periods of American Ge-
ogony, Ontogeny, Floods, and ancient
population tyc. of both Americas.
History does not merely consist in accu
mulating facts: these constitute the annals
of empires ; but the real philosophical his
tory has a nobler aim. It seeks results,
teaches lessons of wisdom, brands with in
famy the foes of mankind, and inspires
veneration for the benefactors of the human
race. It presents examples worthy to be
followed, and records the crimes to be
The several departments of history that
are distinguished as biography, civil and
ecclesiastical annals, moral and physical
surveys of mankind, comparative philology,
archeology, chronology, mythology, &e.
All combine to instruct and amuse, to record
the past and present, and to lead to better
future actions, an improved social order.
The nations often forget the wise lessons of
time and experience ; but they are continu
ally recalled to memory and view by the
historians, who seek the truth, and setting
aside the sway of human passions or na
tional prejudices, present the faithful mirror
of history to the eyes of posterity.
Such is my aim. American history has
been so much despised or perverted, that
few lessons, have been drawn from it: yet
it affords ample scope for reflection, study
and admiration. Nearly one half of the
habitable globe, during all the past ages,
cannot fail to offer a variety of subjects, to
draw the attention of philosophy, wisdom
and philanthropy : that mutual benevo
lence of mankind, which ought ever to be
felt ; but is so often discarded or forgotten
through the contrary tendencies of pride,
lust, cupidity, and all the baneful passions.
The connections of historical facts with
all the sciences, afford another useful theme ;
that may vastly increase our comparative
knowledge : much of it has arisen, besides
observation, from accurate comparison,
analysis and generalization, which combine
to give results, enlarging the field and
sphere of human knowledge, in all its
If we go back, by the help of geology, to
the most remote periods of existence and
life in this hemisphere, we find it like the
remainder of the globe, immersed under
the Ocean. There, in the depths of the
briny waves, the actual rocks now support
ing the dry soil, were formed and matured :
superposed and intermingled by aquatic and
volcanic phenomena and cataclysms, if not
by superadded aerial depositions. Then
were formed the primitive strata of Amer
ica, ere life had begun to vivify the waters ;
then were cast the Porphyries, Granites,
Shales, Basalts, and other primitive or vol
canic rocks, that are now chiefly found in
Boreal and Western America, the Andes,
Mts. Parima, and Brazil, the Austral and
Boreal Islands, Hayti and the Antilles.
This was the first period of terrestial Cre-
After this period of unknown length, be
gan the epocha of aquatic life ; when the
breath of GOD, moving on the waters, gave
life and motion to organized aquatic beings;
1. Plants and Fucites, 2. Spongites and Al-
cyonites, 3. Polyps and corals, 4. Worms
and radials, 5. Sluggs and shells, G. Mol-
lusca and Cephalopodes, 7. Trilobites and
Crustacites . . . All incipient vegetating
beings, or inferior unbony animals, gradu
ally evolved and born in the waters of the
Sea. . . . Followed by the more perfect
vertebrated aquatic animals, 8. Fishes and
Sharks, 9. Snakes and reptiles ; lastly, 10.
Seals and whales. Some of which require
shallow water, to dwell and breed . . This
was the second period of American Crea
tion: Aquatic life.
The third epocha is that of the destruc
tion of aquatic life, by cataclysms and de
positions, submarine volcanic cavernous
eruptions or other causes, throwing sudden
ly in a soft, sandy or muddy state, the sub
stances that have formed the secondary
mountains or strata of psamites, argillites,
calcarites, carbonites, &c., that over
whelmed the aquatic tribes in their way ;
which becoming therein entombed as living
medals of this globe, declare to us these
mighty successive cataclysms or floods of
sand, clay, lime and coal ; now met in vast
regions, the Alleghanies and Central North
America, Florida and the Bahama Islands;
the hills and plains of Brazil, Chili, East
Peru, and Central Maragnon. . . . This
was the second period of terrestial forma
tion in America, the third of successive
The fourth must have been the rise of
the land above the waters, if not already
partly begun. The epocha of terrestrial
upheaving and distortion of strata, by an
awful inward force ; either volcanic, or ca
lorific, or of growing crystalization ; form
ing mountains and islands, raising them
above the Ocean ; to become the nucleus
of future Continents. The American hem
isphere had then probably two great islands,
in the North and South, with many smaller
islands between them, in the tropical sea :
the Alleghany land Atlantis forming two
others in the east, and many others stud
ding the two polar regions. The insulated
mountain tract between Lake Nicaragua
and the long valley of Choco, must then
have formed another Island of the Antilles.
Guyana or Parima was also another large
island : while Brazil was a vast peninsula
attached to the Andes. I have endeavor
ed to express this first configuration of
America in my two maps of North and
South America ; when the Ocean was yet
about 500 feet higher than it is actually.
Whether this cataclysm was contempora
neous throughout, or by successive throes
must be ascertained by Geogony. . . This
was the fourth period of terrestrial events
in this hemisphere ; but the first of terres
trial separate existence.
When the dry land had appeared, the
creative power of GOD exerted upon the
virgin mould of the mountains, drew forth
into life, Plants and Flowers, Trees and
Palms, ; with the successive terrestrial ani
mals, 1. Worms and Slugs, 2. Insects and
Spiders, 3, Snakes and Reptiles, 4. Birds
and Fowls, 5. Beasts and Bats. Streams
began to flow, valleys were excavated in
the soft or yielding strata by heavy tides
and powerful streams : then the fishes of
the sea ascended the rivers, and filled the
streams and lakes. A few shell and other
aquatic animals sent also colonies into fresh
waters. . . . This was the fifth period of
terrestrial events ; that of terrestrial life.
Meantime the land was continuing to
rise, or the ocean to sink ; the dry soil was
extending : land volcanoes began to appear
in the Andes and elsewhere, overwhelming
some living tribes. The carbonic volca
noes had new 7 paroxysms, slaty mud involv
ed terrestrial plants and trees in successive
eruptions : the clay mud or colored sand
was forming tertiary strata on the shores,
involving sea animals, shells, reptiles and
fishes. . . This was the sixth period of ter
restrial events, that of land volcanoes.
After all these ; mankind was created
by GOD, and appeared as lord of the earth,
and the complement of living creation. . .
This may be deemed another Period, if we
like ; although it was but the complement of
the terrestrial living productions, begun in
the 5th, and probably proceeding in the 6th.
Where the first man or men appeared and
dwelt, is unknown or very dubious. Asia
is commonly deemed the first dwelling of
mankind, and Central Asia or Thibet the
cradle of our race : although China, India,
Arabia, Syria, Ceylon, &&gt;c., claim the same
honor. But few authors have placed this
cradle in America, and even then not for
the Adamites. Yet America had some
inhabitants before the flood, if we are to
believe the concurrent traditions of many
American nations ; who keep the memory
of it, and point to their refuges. (1)
Of these American Anti-diluvians we
know little or nothing : their traces are few
and uncertain. It would be otherwise if
we could identify them with the anti-dim^
vian Atlantes, or find their diluvial re
mains. The skeletons found in Guadaloupe,
and on R. Santas of Brazil, by Captain
Elliott (described by Meigs in the trans
actions of American philosophical society
1827) in tuffa with shells, may have been
buried there ; like the mummies of many
American caves, Some of the American,
mounds have appeared anti-diluvian ; but
the fact is not well proved. The subterra
nean antiquities are also of an equivocal
character. The town of log houses lately
found in Georgia, buried under golden clys-
mian soil, cannot be so remote ; the soil
instead of diluvial, may be a deep alluvial.
All the facts on these remote times, shall
be hereafter collected, presented and ex
Thus, has been presented by geological
results, a rapid sketch of the American
periods, t6 the birth of mankind. These
6 periods or yums, are well ascertained as
to succession; but their duration is un
known : and each of them includes several
subordinate periods ; which it is not needful
to investigate in these outlines. The works
on geology may be consulted if required.
These 6 yums or great periods do not
answer exactly to the 6 yums or manifes
tations of the mosaic cosmogony, since
geogony begins only with the 3d, ending
with the 5th.
Such oriental accounts are always de
serving our attention, and susceptible of
the deepest philosophical commentary, as
they mainly agree with all the detected
facts. But there are at least 3 accounts
of the creation or cosmogony in the Sepher
or Hebrew Bible. 1. That of Job. 2. Of
Moses in chapter 2d of Genesis from verse
4 to 25 ; in both, no yums, days nor periods
are mentioned. 3. The usual mosaic ac-
count of chapter 1st. ending only at ch. 2,
v. 3. Even in this usual account more
than 7 periods can be found, including
heaven, earth and men.
These are the real Mosaic periods, with
his own names, very different from the sub
sequent Jewish names, in various dialects.
1. PERIOD OF TIME OR YUM. BRA-
SHITH Real beginning or Real Supreme
Being producing ALEIM the Angels, SHMIM
Heavens, and ARTZ Earth.
2. YUM. THEU-UBEU Chaos, and
THEUM Abyss, with RUH Spirit of God.
3. YUM. AUR Essence of celestial light
or Ether. First divine manifestation of
Mshe or Moses.
4. YUM. RKIO Expanse or sky, diver
sion of aerial and celestial fluids. 2d.
5. YUM. Sea and dry land, upheaving
of land over the waters, or subsiding of the
ocean. Vegetation. 3d.
6. YUM. Sun and Moon appearance by
a change in the misty atmosphere ? with
XUXBIM stars? 4th.
7. YUM. Fishes and Fowls, &c. 5th.
8. YUM. Beasts and cattle, with ADM
mankind or human emanation, our Adam,
ZXR male, and NKBE female. 6th.
9. YUM. Shbioi seventh manifestation,
Aleim became IEUE Jehovah, the living-
self-with-self, the supreme or powerful self.
10. YUM. AD emanation, our mist.
11. YUM. ADM into GN or Gan. our
84 ... e . CATACLYSMS:
12. YUM. OTZ Growth, of lives with
good and evil.
13. YUM. NER 4 flowing emanations
14. YUM. ASHE Intellectual man-
mate, called afterwards EUA living exist
ence, our Eve. Self-with-life.
All these periods should require long
comments, and discussions, rather physical
than historical. It is by no means certain
that the sun and moon are implied in the 6th
yum. The text says a couple of MARTH
Centralities EMAUR-GDL and EMAUR-
KTN Self-great-ether greatest and lesser.
Some have seen here the solar and lunar
dynasties of Asia. The XUX-BIM might
be the XRUBIM of later times. The real
sun and moon may belong to the yum of
AUR. The stars, according to Job, were
in existence before the foundation of the
earth, and our astronomy teaches this
In this cosmogony, the heavenly creation
takes 4 periods. The grass grows by light
before the sun had appeared through the
misty atmosphere, and the fishes come after
the land and herbs, at the same period with
fowls. Our actual geology does not con
firm this last fact ; but a proper explana
tion of the biblic words would confirm the
Many still consider AISH intellectual
man as the human race, previous to Adam,
father of the Adamites; but the concurrent
proofs are very slender : nor is their pos
terity known ; unless Nahash or the snakes,
Elohim or the sons of God, the Rephains
or giants, and the Nephilim or apostates,
be considered as such. Indications of races
of men different from the Adamites may be
collected both in the Bible, and in all the
ancient annals of China, India, Iran, &c. ;
but no positive connected account has ever
been made out as yet.
The Nahash, Hareth or Satan of the
Bible, is identic with the Nagas (snakes)
of the Hindus, the Zabul and Dives, (de
vils) of Iran, evidently men, and foes of the
Adamites: they are also the U-long or
antidiluvian dragons of China. In Ame
rica the satanic notions will be seen in the
respective account of religions. They
often assume in this hemisphere the ap
pearance of volcanic ideas, or of a vampire
malignant being. But the nations of the
Linapi group connect the ideas of devils,
snakes arid foes, all called Ako or JSPakho
very similar with Nahash and Nagas.
They assert that they were created by the
Evil Spirit, were always foes of real men ;
that they caused the flood, and went after
wards to America before the Strait of Beh-
ring was formed. See Linapi Traditions.
The ALEIM, Elohim or Egregori or
angels of the Hebrew were instead sons of
God, and Moses ascribes to them the crea
tion of the earth ; while Job ascribes it to
Eloah, the real God. Herder has said
that we shall never understand well the
mosaic history, until we ascertain who
were these Elohim and Cherubim (3)
dwelling on earth. My dissertation on
anti-diluvian history may perhaps help to
clear the matter ; meantime it may be
stated that they appear to be the HO-LO
of anti-diluvian Chinese history, or LO-LO
of their post-diluvian annals. Perhaps also
the celestial emperors beginning the history
of China : the Alorus first dinasty of As
syria before the flood : the ^dw^-ELOS and
P EL of the Pelagians. Also the H ELLO
(old men) of the Egyptians, the PELEI
(old men or ancestors) of the ancient Illy-
rians, the LAHI or ancient Thibetans.
They may be the ELEI or ancient Per
sians, the Peris or Pelts of Iran, ancient
beneficent beings. The Arabs and all the
Semetic nation have preserved that name
for God, in EL, Allah, Baal, or made of
it their universal article El, Al, meaning
HE or the Being : whence also the Pela
gic and Italic articles IL, L, LI, &c., the
Spanish EL. By the frequent usual change
of L into R, we have ER root found in
many languages for men: forming the
Her os of Greece, sons of God ; the HER
or lords of the Germanic tribes, the Seres
of Thibet or ancient Chinese, Ergaz men
of the African Atlantes. ErJc man in Turk
ish or Turan Atlantes, akin to Egregori !
In America these similar indications are
widely spread, and among the most an-
cient nations. EL means man in Tolteca
and Mexican, OL is old and Yollo a spirit
or angel. EL is son and tribe in Hayti,
Elohi is land and spirit in Tzuluki. Yol
means man in the Atakapa language of
the Cado or Nachez group. Pele means
the same in Lule of South America ; but
Peli is soul in Chilian, which approximate
to Pelcg and Lelex, ancient Pelagian
tribes. The connections with TEL, TAL,
TOL, pervade the whole of ancient Ame
rica, and lead to assimilate with the TOL-
tecas and TALAS, American Atlantes,
the Tulans or Asiatic Atlantes, the Auto-
Toles or African Atlantes. These lead to
the giants of both hemispheres or ancient
men of renown. But the subject must be
postponed, and will be found resumed in
the history of Austral and Central Ame
rica, where these atlantes and giants are
Returning from this digression ; we may
resume the geological periods of America
previous to mankind, in the" six successive
epochas, already mentioned.
1. Period. Primitive, aquatic and before
2. Period of aquatic organic life.
3. Period of aquatic cataclysms.
4. Period of the dry land or islands.
5. Period of terrestrial life.
6. Period of terrestrial volcanoes.
After which begins the human period,
till the flood. The question whether man
or men appeared together, or before or
after, in both hemispheres; must be left
undecided. Some writers have even placed
Eden the GN of Moses in America and
the Hesperidian Islands of old ; but as the
Imalaya mountains, valleys and plains, are
higher than the Andes, older in geological
series, and more suitable for human life,
not being volcanic : it is extremely proba
ble that they were the cradle of mankind,
rather than America.
Yet men reached America before the
flood, and were here at this eventful period.
But we are ignorant of the precise way they
came, and how they reached this land
which was then only a group of large isl
ands, unless North America was united to
Asia by Behring Strait, as very probable.
The clearest traditions point to the east,
Africa and Europe then united at the
Strait of Gibraltar, and the Island Atlantis
as a stepping place. The Mexican tradi
tions point to Asia, by two different opposite
quarters, the east and the north west. The
Uskis or Innuit nations are late comers by
the north west. The Linapi nations, al
though earlier, came the same way, and
over the ice of Behring Strait, after its
diruption. The Hongwis came the same
way, although they boast of being Autoch-
tones, as did the Greeks, which we know
in both instances to be false.
The Nachez nations say they came from
the east. The Olmecas or earliest people
of Anahuac point that way also ; although
both speak of an American flood. The
Haytians and Cubans were also of eastern
origin, like all the Aruac nations ; but re
membered the flood and parceling of the
islands. The Carib nations appear postdilu-
vians and the last come in South America ;
yet the Tamanacs one of the group speak
of an American flood. The Guarani call
themselves eastern men, and came from
Africa after the flood. It is in South
America, the Andes of Chili, Peru, &c.,
that a positive memory was found of several
floods and cataclysms, in or near the An
des, which gave refuge to several tribes.
Yet it is there also that the most obvious
philological affinities are found with North
Africa and the shores of the Mediteranean ;
while many invasions of foreign later na
tions are recorded, &c.
All these antidiluvian notions, and ac
counts of the American flood, will be care
fully collected and given. This will form
the first period of human history in America,
extending to 2262 years at least, according
to the computation of the 70; the most
plausible of all. The Tol-tecas reckon
nearly the same time between their period
of creation and their main flood : or with
trifling differences, less than the various
terms of Josephus and others ; but various
other calculations are found in Anahuac.
Such a period of 23 centuries was cer
tainly sufficient to people America, and fill
it. The Cainites or Cabils have been deem
ed parents of the Atlantes and Africans.
They were skilful, powerful and wicked,
inventing agriculture and arts, building
cities &c.: while the Sethites invented astro
nomy, letters and dwelt in tents. If the
American Atlantes were antidiluvian, they
must have sprung from the Atlantes Cain
ites, KIN of Moses.
In 1170 years after Adam, the Egregori
angels of Mt. Ima, came to Mt. Herinon,
in 20 tribes, under their king Semi-Azar,
and uniting with the Cainites, gave birth to
the Rephaim, Nephilim and Etiud, tribes
of Giants, tyrants and Canibals : who made
war on the angels and men. They are said
in the Bible to have gone to 8heol (the
lower world or South America) with their
king Belial : where they were drowned by
the flood. See Universal History.
The Giants dwelt in Talo-tolo, the world
Tolo of the Hindus, where we find the
ToZ-tecas (Tol-people:) therefore America:
called also Atala and once sunk in the
waves ; like the Atlantis of the Greek,
whose Atlantes were also Giants or power
ful men. The Egregori have been deemed
the Titans of the Greeks, and Atlas was a
Titan. Although Gigantic Nations existed
in America, the Talegas, Toltecas, Caribs,
Chilians, &c. being often such : the term
Giant must always be understood to refer
to powerful perverse men. The names of
Rephaim andNephilim appear unknown in
America, being mere Hebrew epithets for
giants and apostates.
During this primitive period, geological
and physical changes probably proceeded
in America. The plains gradually appear
ed, but full of marshes, lakes and wide
streams, muddy volcanoes, snakes, croco
diles and obnoxious animals. Which must
have assailed mankind and greatly impeded
their settlements. Although the lives of
men were perhaps longer than now ; yet it
is probable that the long lives of the Patri
archs of this period, allude to as many
Dynasties or gradual nations sprung from
each other. In this I agree entirely with the
learned Hebrew scholar D Olivet. (4.)
Huge beasts and carnivorous animals,
dwelt then on earth ; in America several
species of mastodons, elephants, oxen, me
gatherium, megalonyx, hyenas, bears, &c.,
which prowled in plains and caves, The
temperature of the earth was higher ; little
clothing was needed. Men were at war
with beasts, and among themselves. Vio
lence predominated in many regions, and
Noah one of the DP mis of the Hindus,
a patriarch of the Adamites, a prophet
according to the Arabs, went over the earth
to preach against this corruption. Not
being attended to, he foresaw that a great
calamity would befall for these iniquities,
and he prepared himself a THBE or refuge
in Central Asia: where he collected his
relations and friends. Some say they were
72, our translations of Moses reduces them
to 8 ; but his 3 sons of Noah, are evidently
as many tribes. The THBE of Noah con
tained therefore 4 tribes, including his own,
and many individuals, besides a multitude
I do not give now the history of this
flood. Before it can be given accurately,
we must collect all the scattered traditions
about it, compare them, and omitting all
fabulous and obviously impossible details,
form a narrative of the whole facts. The
notions and traditions of the Americans are
very various, as they do not always point
to this flood. We find them asserting that
men were saved in mountains, or caves, on
rafts or boats. Few, if any, allude to an
ark, but all to a refuge as THBE. Those
of Mexico and Peru, are contradictory, al
luding to several floods, and particularly
the subsequent of Peleg.
The most explicit traditions on that score
are those of the Linapi nations ; although
the tribes vary the tale, the holy song of
the real Linapi tribe, alludes clearly to a
great flood in Asia : when their nations at
least was partly saved in Tula (the turtle
land) in Central Asia, by the help of a god
dess, and Noah or Nana-bush. The men
were then called Linowi and Linapi : two
other races of men were saved, the Owini
(beings) and the Tulapcwi, turtlings or
atlantes. Besides these foes the Mas-
kanaka (strong snakes), Nakowa (dark
snakes), and the Amangamek, monsters
of the sea; who caused this dire flood.
These notions are strikingly similar to the
Asiatic and Hindu fables about the turtle
saving mankind at the flood. Nana-bush
is evidently Noah, his name means Noah-
Noah-hare, or the Great Noah and Hare.
The Chinese accounts of the first flood,
do not allude to any ark, but mountains
were the refuge of mankind. The Hindu
account is very near the mosaic ; but has
no boat, and many persons were saved.
The accounts of the Assyrians, Arabs r
Tartars, Egyptians, Lybians, Greeks, Celts,
Polynesians, &c. are all different. The
mosaic account was borrowed from some
ancient source now forgotten. It is said
that Noah himself wrote an account of the
flood, and preserved ancient records. Di
vesting the mosaic account from the super
natural and the impossible, we obtain the
real tradition of a great aquatic cataclysm.
Either a sinking of some lands or an irrup
tion of the ocean, attended with volcanic
floods of waters from the Caspian sea (as
Humboldt says,) heavy rains, and a change
of climate : which overflew the earth or
most of it ; except some Thebas, refuges
in mountains, swimming over the waters,
as it were : there some men and tribes,
many animals, trees and plants were pre
served : to spread afterwards again over
After this flood, America was left pretty
much as it is now, except that the shores
were higher yet, many flat plains inundated
and full of marshes. The Antilles yet unit
ed in larger islands and perhaps with Cu-
mana. The Strait of Choco nearly filled
up : and diluvial soil, gravel, sand, boulders
and organic remains scattered over the
land, the hills, plains and caves. Many
fierce beasts had disappeared, vegetation
had been destroyed wherever the flood
went ; but the buried seeds, and those of
mountain plants gradually grew or spread
again. The terrestrial animals and birds
saved in the mountains, spread themselves
again over the earth. Mankind in despair
at the disaster, kept for a long while on
mountains, and did not occupy again the
desolated hills and plains, until many years
The Chinese account of this flood, state
positively that it was attended with a
change in the length of the year, formerly
of only 360 days, a change in the seasons,
an increase of cold, rain and winds : com*
pelling men to dress in skins and mats.
Also that the wild beasts and snakes driven
to the mountains, became very troublesome,
men being compelled to defend themselves
against their attacks.
The Rev. Gleig in his late history of the
Bible, where like Hales and Russel, he
has at last adopted the computation of the
Septuagint arid Josephus, reckons 5411
years from Adam to our era, the oriental
Christians reckon 5508 years, the Toltecas,
reckoned 5099 years. Gleig puts Noah s
flood 2259 years after Adam. The Chi
nese and Hindu chronology are partly
fabulous; but may be reconciled to these
periods; as well as to the second cataclysm
of the earth ; that of Peleg according to
the Biblists. The only knowledge the Bi
ble gives about it, is that the earth was
split, broken or divided, in the time of the
patriarch or dynasty of Peleg ; who lived
or lasted from 531 to 870 after Noah s
flood. But David has sung this cataclysm
in the 18th psalm. The Chinese account
brings this second flood to the year 2296
before Christ, or 858 years after the former.
The Hindu account concealed in many fa
bles agrees also with this period. But it
appears to have lasted longer, and many
years. It is evidently in date the mistaken
Hebrew flood, blending both into one, and
annihilating the place between them. The
Chinese account distinctly speaks of both,
the first was under Jfunti, the second under
Fa0, and 42 emperors are mentioned be
tween the two floods.
In America, it is often difficult to distin
guish which is meant by the various im
perfect traditions : yet in Mexico and Peru,
there are at least two cataclysms mentioned
by the annals or traditions. Also among
some northern tribes. The Linapi annals
or songs allude to the second, which broke
by volcanoes the Lusasaki (burnt land)
and separated America or Akomendki
(snake island) from Asia to Behring strait.
Thus the real antidiluvian periods lasted
nearly 3000 years from Adam s epocha,
or 3212 by oriental computation. The
interval between Adam and Noah ought
to be called the Adamic period, that be
tween Noah and Peleg s floods the Noahic
period. It was at this last convulsion that
the earth took its actual form. The Straits
of Gibraltar, Calais, Messina, Hellespont,
Bosphorus, Babelmandel, Behring, Malaca,
Sunda, &c., were then formed. The At
lantis Island in the Atlantic Ocean and the
Island Lanca in the Indian Ocean were
sunk. The Azores, Madeira, Canaries,
&c. are fragments of the Atlantis: Cey
lon, Madagascar, &c. the fragments of
In America, the Boreal islands may have
been broken, like the British islands of
Europe. Some suppose that they might
once join together with Iceland. The An
tilles were split in the actual form Beh
ring Strait divided America from Asia.
The Polynesia lands were broken or sunk.
The lowlands of Chili, Peru, and the At
lantic shores were inundated and then
partly left dry by huge volcanic tides.
This cataclysm was not a mere aquatic
flood; but a violent volcanic ocd, having
at least three great focusses, 1. in the North
Atlantic Ocean, 2. In the Indian Ocean,
3. In Polynesia or the Pacific Ocean. In
China all the lowlands were overflowed
and partly overwhelmed. The great Isl
ands of Java and Sumatra were formed ;
which formerly were united with Asia and
several islands in the vicinity, under the
remembered name of Sunda land.
If mankind had not reached America
before Noah, it must surely have reached
it before this second cataclysm. The At-
lantes were in the neighbourhood and bold
navigators, as w r ell as the primitive Pela
gians, Lybians, Cantabrians ; bearing then
various peculiar names, mostly traced in
America. Twenty American nations have
distinct remembrance of this splitting of
American lands and islands ; local or par
tial floods, less general and disastrous than
This cataclysm was not so deadly to
animals and vegetables as the former ; but
it must have destroyed them in several
sunken islands : and have added second
clysmian strata to the soil of the plains :
with many volcanic productions, chiefly
clay and sand, limy and marshy muds.
The memorials, annals and traditions of
the American nations are very scanty on
this period ; difficult to be distinguished
from the Adamic : while the monuments
to be referred to it, are not easily traced,
nor distinct in form. The Linapi tribes
had npt yet reached America, and dwelt
in Asia ; but by their account the Snake
tribes Akowi went to America in that pe-
riod, led by Nakopowa (the Snake priest) ;
it is even hinted that they caused this cata
clysm or at least the separation of Asia and
America, at LusasaJd (burnt land), in or
der to escape their foes, the Elowi-chik
(hunters) of the Linnapewi, the original
NOTES TO CHAPTER in.
1. E-AD M, Self- Adam, is the name
given by Moses to the first men, pronounced
since Adam. Gen. 1. v. 27; but called also
ZXR and N K BE or male and female.
The *2d AD M or Adam was subsequent :
although the commentators have blended
them, as they have the floods, days and
other things. Our bible translation of early
events is besides very erroneous ; the Tal-
mudist or Jewish version with points is not
correct, being in a late dialect : the true
text of Moses which I follow, has no points,
but admits of a sheva or soft breathing
2. Geological comments are not here
required, my business is with mankind.
Moses calls men beside Aish, Anush,
G ft r, and women Nshim, Itath, Ashe,
Ashth ; which are perhaps as many names
of early tribes! as well as ALEIM or
Elohim, XRBIM Cherubim, Nahash, tyc.
If these primitive names will offer any ana
logies in America, they shall be thoroughly
pointed out hereafter. HUE is the real Eve.
See the chapter on the Mosaic Ontology
for many other human beings, or early
tribes. ]3ut it may be well to add here the
names of the beings of the 7th and 8th
Yums which we all deem animals, although
there are indications to the contrary.
7. YUM. The MIM waters produced
SH R TZ production translated reptile!
No soul. N F SH-HIE, soul living. OUF,
Fowl, made to come from waters, and their
motion. LOUF F means both flying and
flirting or swimming, G. 1. v. 20. But
ALEIM realized or created the TH NI
NIM whales, or rather Great fishes, having
a soul living NFSH-EHIE, verse 21. This
fine word soul has been translated creature.
8. YUM. The earth produces with soul
BEME. Cattle or Herdsmen of life? v. 24.
R M SH, Reptiles or creeping Troglodytes?
HITHU, Beasts or Hunters. The BEME
are perhaps Herdsmen! and all these
may be men, over whom Adam was to
reign, giving them names. Else all these
animals had real souls like men! The
fishes or fishermen D G TH only appear
in v. 26. at subjects of Adam.
Moses and the Hebrew poets divided the
animals in 3 classes, which represent also
men ! and were personified.
1. SH R TZ, Production Moses.
LUITH N of Job. The Leviathan of
2. N F SH, Animated Moses. OZNor
Hozan of Poets.
Moses has 2 kinds of these: THNINIM
Aquatic, and OUF-XNF, Fowl strong
winged, as he had 2 of the last. SH R TZ,
aquatic reptile, and OUF aerial fowl,
3. HITHU, Beast : of 2 kinds, BEME and
RUSH, which are the BEMUTH of Job,
BEHEMOTH of Poets.
3. The Cherubim were deemed Angels,
but of 4 sorts, 3 having faces of a lion y
ox, and eagle : which indicates tribes bear
ing those names, or the 4 primitive castes
of mankind, the oxen referring to the la
boring caste, the lion to the militant caste,
4. See his learned work, translation and
paraphrase of the first chapters of Genesis :
wherein the best account of the creation,
antidiluvian history and flood has been
5. Lanca was according to the Hindus
a big land under the equator, including
perhaps the Decan or south of India, then
separated by a sea from the Imalaya moun
tains, now yet a vast level plain; and united
to Ceylon and other islands. It is in this
land of Lanca that many traditions place
Adam, with several early events.
The Stmda land was very different, a
large peninsula south of Asia including
Java, Sumatra, Borneo &c. Or perhaps
an island, if Malaca was separated from
Siam by a strait.
GENERAL VIEW. 101
GENERAL VIEW of the Ancient and Mo
dern Annals of both Americas.
European Colonies, Modern fate of
nations, late physical changes, <fyc.
After these floods begin the primitive
annals of mankind in America as else
where; but still scanty, obscure and in
volved in fables, by personifications of
tribes, metamorphoses into animals, plants,
fruits or even stones and mountains. The
origin of nearly all the nations is neither
clear nor well ascertained, by their mere
annals ; but the collateral proofs of the
languages facilitate the enquiry. Those
who have the most positive facts of primi
tive times are the Ongwis, Linapis, Tolte-
cas. Tainos, Peruvians, &c.; but commonly
destitute of dates and correct details. We
ought not to be surprised at this, since even
in Asia (except in China,) we possess no
thing but fragments on those times; while
the most polished nations of oldest times,
the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Arabs,
Jews, &c. have involved their early histo
ries in fables, mythologies and false dates.
However, whatever might be the early
origin of the American nations, it may be
collected from all, that in the ancient pe
riods ; they were few in number and in
population; principally confined to some
102 GENERAL VIEW.
peculiar scats of civilization: such as the
regions of Apalacha, Hayti, Anahuac,
Oaxaca, Chiapa, Maya, Cundina, Oronoc,
and Peru. We have positive proofs of
early empires and splendid monumental
cities at Teoti-huacan, Otolum, Cohan &c.
in Central America ; and in South Ame
rica at Chimu, Tiahuanaco &c.; while
cities and monuments of a lesser order or
size, were scattered afterwards from the
Lakes of Canada and the River Ohio, to
Chili and Brazil : probably through the
dispersion and colonization of these early
empires or states. (1)
After they had filled the most fruitful or
suitable regions, carrying with them agri
culture, domestic animals, religion, laws
and various graphic systems : they were
invaded by tribes less civilized ; but more
warlike ; principally in North America,
and in Guyana, Brazil &,c. Many revo
lutions must have followed these contests :
some of which are recorded in the Apa-
lachian region of the United States, in the
Mexican table land, in Hayti &c. and by
the Muyzcas, Peruvians &c. further south :
while in Guyana and Brazil the annals are
lacking, and the traces of these conflicts
but faint ; yet certified by some traditions
and the new tribes introduced.
The solar worship prevailed among the
most civilized nations and empires: that
of Naguals or Zemis (spirits) among those
of the second degree. The least civilized
GENERAL VIEW. 103
nations had either adopted the Dualism or
a mixed religion : while the barbarous
tribes knew only a kind of Tao religion as
in China, (2) or a fetichism, venerating one
or many objects of nature. But these four
main worships, were subject to many fluc
tuations, and diversities : they had often
degenerated into a Polytheism, and idol
atry, with various rites, and some cruel
customs, human sacrifices &c. A kind
of priesthood was almost universal and
formed a peculiar caste in many states.
The legislators and rulers had often been
priests, and became pontifs as well as
kings, in Cuzco. Chimu, Tunca, Mayapan,
Cholula, Manazicas &c.
During a period of 2 or 3000 years after
the floods, the earth had undergone many
changes by volcanoes, earthquakes and the
subsiding of the sea. Many valleys were
drained, their lakes lessened or disap
peared ; the shores of the Atlantic from
New Jersey to Florida and Yucatan, and
from La Plata to Magellania, as well as
those of Peru, Chili &c. were increased
by the gradual retreat of the sea. The
great plains of the Mississippi, Oronoc,
Maranon and Parana were also formed or
drained of their swamps and morasses.
It is at the end of this epocha, equal to
the antecedent antidiluvian period, that
the real or certain history of the Ameri
cans begins with many details and dates ;
both in the north and south. It was then
104 GENERAL VIEW.
that the empires of the Toltecas, Utatlans.
Mexicans, Apalachis, Mayapans, Incas&c.
were established on the ruins of many an
terior states. We obtain by the annals
preserved or recovered of many such na
tions, a tolerable view of this part of their
history, and even an insight into earlier
times, when similar revolutions must have
happened. If many states or nations rose
and fell in this hemisphere, unknown to the
other : it vas a common fate with others
in Africa, Polynesia and even in Asia.
But we may hope to rescue their names if
not their deeds, from total oblivion, by
seeking their monuments, arid the frag
ments of human tribes they left to mourn
In this period some American nations
rose to a degree of splendor and civiliza
tion, with knowledge of arts and sciences,
little inferior to Greeks and Romans ; and
superior to the European nations of the
middle ages, even down to 1492 : quite
equal at least to that of the Egyptians and
Hindus. The American graphic systems
of Apalacha, Anahuac, Maya, Otolum,
Peru ; although peculiar, were quite suffi
cient to transmit knowledge in books,
schools and inscriptions. This high civili
zation was not merely confined to Mexico
and Peru, as often erroneously supposed ;
but was scattered from the Apalachis and
Nachez of Florida to the Chilians south of
Peru, filling the whole intermediate space.
GENERAL VIEW* 105
Although war and slavery prevailed in
many parts, they were modified by the
usage of adoption for individuals and whole
tribes, mutual alliances, confederacies &,c.:
while slavery Was changed into a feodal
vassalage. The feodal system and the
castes prevailed in all civilized nations of
America, as in India and Asia from earliest
Instead of perpetual wars the ancient
annals of America, present us with the
soothing view of wise legislators, who gave
civilization and happiness to millions for
ages, and conquered by deeds of peace!*
Such were most of the conquests of the
Bohitos, Bochicas, Incas, Quetzals, Cucul-
cans, Tzomes, Maponos, Tamanends, Ta-
renyos &,c. worthy lawgivers of the Antilles,
Muyzcas, Peru, Anahuac, Mayas, Guara-
nis, Manazicas, Linapis, and Ongwis. I
shall revive, with pleasure, their memory
and deeds, dwelling on them with more
pleasure than on the cruel war leaders.
To them the Americans were indebted
for their policy, diplomacy, alliances, agri
culture and knowledge, with the peculiar
happy mode of holding the land in common
or feodal tenure, with property in tene
ments and moveables. To them may be
traced the introduction of usefnl plants,
the maize, cotton, quinoa, patatas, yams,
manioc, banana, gourds, beans, and 100
other cultivated plants and fruits. The
Mexicans had even botanic gardens and
106 GENERAL VIEW.
pleasure grounds before the modern Euro
peans. The universities of Cuzco, Tunca,
Tezcuco, Cholula, Mayapan, Utatlan &c.
were founded earlier than the European
universities by such benefactors of man
kind ; and 112 domestic animals had been
tamed in America, while only 80 in the
eastern hemisphere. Of which must be
In the W. Hemisphere. In the Eastern.
Quadrupeds 33 kinds only 25 kns.
Birds 32 25
Reptiles 15 10
Fishes 12 10
Insects 8 4
Shells and worms 12 6
The modern history of America since
1492 presents a multitude of events with
regular dates : but the historians of these
later times instead of dwelling upon the
native nations, appear to notice them merely
en passant ! while relating at length the
discoveries, conquests and wars of the Eu
ropean adventurers and colonists.
It is not thus that we are to notice them ;
but as equal nations. Now that after four
ages, these colonies are also become inde
pendent nations, and begin to nurse Ame
rican feelings, we ought to feel for them,
and reveal the truth. It is not number
nor dominion alone that constitute a peo
ple ; but a peculiar language, and peculiar
manners. The modern history of the
Araucanians, Guaranis, Caribs, and North
GENERAL VIEW. 107
American tribes, is the best known by pe
culiar fragments ; but similar fragments
may be collected on many other tribes.
Meantime Columbus came, another lea
der of colonists to America; since many
had come before him : and with him came
the ferocious gold hunters of Castille ; who
in their greedy search after golden wealth,
trampled under foot, both religion and hu
manity. They enslaved, tortured and de
stroyed millions of human beings from
Hayti to Mexico and Peru ; but were
checked at last in Florida, Chili, Tolo-
galpa, Santa Marta &c. They overthrew
many flourishing states, and erected over
them a slavish colonial fabric, soon after
sunk in sloth and ignorance. (4)
The dissentions of Mexico and Peru were
the cause of their ruin and subjugation by
the Spaniards ; but the Floridans, Apaches,
Tayronas, Poyays, Caribs, Mbayas, Chilians
&c. withstood forever their utmost efforts,
and never were conquered. The happy
states of Yucatan, Guatimala, Tunca, Hayti,
Cuba &c. fell by their unwarlike and peace
ful friendly disposition ; being cruelly be
trayed and desolated.
In the east, Brazil was occupied by the
Portuguese, where a bastard tribe of Ma-
malucos were born ; who sought for slaves
and gold, from Guayana to Paraguay, and
destroyed many tribes. After these un
worthy freebooters, came the rabble of
pirates and baccaneers to revenge Ameri-
108 GENERAL VIEW.
can wrongs, upon the Spaniards and Portu
guese by deeds of cruelty. Thus was
America flooded with blood, and groaning
in tears for nearly three centuries. But
even these horrible deeds were not the
only ones to deplore. Not satisfied with
the weak labor of American slaves ; an
other continent was overrun, to supply
stronger hands, and Africa was made to
contribute millions of slaves to swell Ame
rican population, or sink there to premature
death under the lashing scourge of cruel
The English, French, and Dutch wishing
to partake of the American spoils, went in
search of wealth all over the shores of this
continent. Not satisfied with mere trading
colonies, as in India, they sent stationary
colonies of slaves and planters, to occupy
some weak points, with or without the
consent of the nations. The Dutch settled
in Brazil, Surinam, Curazao and New York.
The French in Canada, Louisiana, Florida,
Hayti, the Carib Islands, Cayenne and Bra
zil ; but have gradually lost all those colo
nies, except Cayenne and a few Carib Ids.
The English nation, more daring, steady
and lucky, occupied with their auxiliaries,
the Scotch and Irish, some points of the
Atlantic shores, many Carib Islands &c.:
by conquest they acquired New York, Ca
nada, Demerary, Jamaica and some smaller
islands. Since, whenever the Europeans
were at war among themselves, they carried
GENERAL VIEW. 109
their quarrels over the ocean, and endea
vored to destroy each other. Laterly
among them arose in North America the
holy flame of freedom and independence,
which has been travelling and spreading
throughout the continent, ever since.
But among these contending colonies and
slaving plantations, how were the owners
of the soil, treated and dealt with ? Alas !
seldom with justice Popes and kings gave
away lands and rights, which did not belong
to them; nobles and merchants, availing
themselves of this doubtful right, bought
with trifling presents the good will of some
tribes, or drove them away by force. Thus
were settled most of the American colonies ;
except a few, attempted in a spirit of reli
gion and peace.
The worthy Las-Casas, immortal be his
name ! gave the example of reducing un
subdued tribes to peaceful allies, by words
and deeds of peace and piety, and Tezutlan
thus reduced by him was called Verapaz.
When the Spanish and Portuguese free
booters were sunk in wealth and sloth;
they found it very convenient to employ
the Jesuits and other monks to subdue for
them whole tribes and nations, by this easy
mode. In North America, Roger Wil
liams and William Penn, blessed be their
names ! settled colonies without strife, and
by mere good will towards the owners of
the soil. But every where the foes or
successors of these missionaries of peaco,
110 GENERAL VIEW.
deceived or betrayed the allies they had
made. Unjust wars were the natural con
sequence, in which the rightful party, did
not often prevail, being overpowered by
strength and cunning.
Meantime the independent period opens
a new era for America. In 1776 the
United States of North America confede
rate and become free. Seventeen years
afterwards the black slaves of Hayti unfurl
the standard of broken chains. Between
1808 and 1820 the whole of Spanish Ame
rica shakes the weak power of Spain. In
1822 the whole of Brazil becomes an
American empire. Slavery is abolished
in all the Spanish states, only retained in
the colonies of Cuba and Porto Rico. In
1834 England emancipates the slaves of
all her colonies. Slavery was gradually
excluded from many states of N. America,
at early periods ; but others from Virginia
to Louisiana are tenacious of these unholy
and dangerous bonds.
Now, the native American tribes within
the claimed territories of these new inde
pendent nations, are under a sort of pupil
age, and often oppressed: although no
onger slaves from Canada to Chili. Bra
zil alone admits of indescriminate slavery,
and will rue the consequence at some
future period, like those colonies and states
that delay wiser measures. Meanwhile at
the two ends of America, in Canada and
the United States, as in Buenos Ayres, a
GENERAL VIEW. Ill
new kind of oppression has appeared.
Land stealing and compulsory sales! un
hallowed means to increase wealth, nearly
as guilty as the precious Spanish gold
The United States which ought to set
the wisest example, of justice and cle
mency, towards reduced tribes, diminished
by vices taught instead of virtues, are doing
the reverse. They refuse to amalgamate
the native tribes, admit them to equal
rights, as in the new Spanish States ; but
compel them to submit to laws not under
stood, in a language untaught, or disqualify
them for witnesses. They compel them to
remove, emigrate, disperse, sell their lands
and homes, at one tenth of the value ; and
this is called fair dealing !
Notwithstanding that the European states
or colonies, occupy or claim, nearly the
whole of both Americas ; yet there are
many vast regions as yet unsettled by them,
and where dwell or wander several free
tribes, particularly in the Arctic wilds,
in Oregon, California, Texas, the Missouri
plains, New Mexico, Sinaloa, Tologalpa,
in N. America and in S. America in the
vast plains and deserts of the Oronoko,
Maranon, Brazil, Chaco, Chili and Magel-
lania. The most prominent of these mo
dern tribes are the Uskis or Esquimaux,
the Dinnis, the Chopunish, Dacotas or
Sioux, Panis or Skeres, Washas or Ozages,
Chactas, Tzulukis, Apaches or Cuman-
ches, Poyays or Musquitos &c. In South
America, the Aruacs, Caribs, Omaguas,
Maynas, Aymaras, Puris, Mbay as, Araucas,
Talahets or Pampas &c. All divided into
many lesser tribes and independent com
Instead of endeavoring to civilize them
by fair means and deeds of peace, many
continue to be exasperated by unfair deal
ings, greedy traders, intemperance, and
above all by killing their game, and steal
ing their lands. Some missions are esta
blished from Greenland to Chili ; but the
intercourse of the majority is with traders,
trappers, land-hunters or squatters, and the
military of the frontiers : from whom they
can imbibe no very favorable idea of their
How is this to end ? Is it really intended
to grasp the whole continent, and make
these fragments of nations, aliens on their
own soil? or to annihilate them at last?
Beware ! men of bad faith, or greedy of
landed wealth ! There is a God in heaven,
and he deals justly with nations as with
men. He may find means to punish you,
if you continue to violate the sacred laws
of mankind. The desperate tribes, either
become stronger by concentration, or ac
quired knowledge, may fall on you at last,
like so many Goths and Vandals, Huns
and Tartars, to revenge their wrongs, and
desolate this land wrongly acquired. Or
among you will arise Agrarian sects, that
GENERAL VIEW. 113
will deprive your children of this landed
property so unjustly acquired and held.
Be wise and just in time, if cupidity
does not blind you, imitate the happy po
licy of Mexico, Guatimala, Peru &c. that
has admitted the natives to equality and
citizenship. Do better still, allow them to
form peculiar states and territories, pre
serving their languages and laws, and
admit these states into your confederacies.
Then you will be secure, and both live in
peace, increasing and multiplying as time
rolls on. There is land enough for all, and
to spare. What need has a man of 1000
acres of land ; while 100 can support a
large family ! in the cold climates, and 10
acres in the fruitful tropical climates, where
thrive the banana and the sugar cane. If
hunters require a large wilderness to sus
tain their mode of life, greedy worshippers
of mammon wish for 10,000 acres to hold
waste for speculation ! or to fill with plan
tations of slaves and tenants, in order to
become lords of future generations; but
the real wise and active men, the props of
society , are content with moderate secure
estates, which they may improve and beau
tify into smiling gardens.
The modern intercourse of the two he
mispheres has been productive of much
more misery, than mutual benefit. The
Americans have received the European
cattle without imparting to Europe, their
equally useful Peruvian cattle ; they have
114 GENERAL VIEW.
received the horse, and often adopted him
as a friend, to become Tartars and Arabs
by his help, so as to retaliate mischief on
the cruel Spaniards. Some European fruits
and grains have been received and culti
vated : while all have been introduced into
the colonies. Woolen cloth, blankets, iron
and copper kettles, tools, trinkets, guns and
gunpowder, with the liquid poisons of the
still, have been spread by trade. These
last with horses and guns, have been the
chief deadly weapons of Europe against
In return, Europe has received gold, sil
ver and precious furs : pearls and diamonds,
cochineel, annato, indigo, die woods, vicunia
wool, cacao, vanilla, gum elastic and many
other useful or medical articles. Maize, re
turning east whence it came ; with tobacco,
a loathsome weed of heathen growth and
rites. Human knowledge has been in
creased, and trade greatly enlarged ; the
tame cavias, with turkeys and musky-ducks
have been transmitted. Thus Europe has
been the gainer, and was for a long while
jealous of these treasures. (6)
Under the pious guise of hypocrisy, the
heavenly religion of Jesus, was offered or
forced upon many American nations, by the
same men, who were behaving worse than
heathens, worshipping gold and mammon
with the earth itself, bathed in human blood
and tears; introducing slavery and over
toils ; exulting in deeds of cruelty, revenge,
GENERAL VIEW. 115
wanton lust, cupidity and avarice ; with all
the other anti-christian vices. If Mexico
had ghastly idols and cruel rites ; Hayti,
Cuba, Bogota, Peru &c. had not; but
peaceful, harmless worships : to which was
substituted the papal worships of other idols,
saints and monks. The pure undefiled re
ligion of love and peace to all mankind, was
seldom introduced in America, even by the
Jesuits except by the heavenly Las-Casas,
the friendly quakers, the humane moravians,
and a few other Christian missionaries. All
the sects of Christianity have now spread to
America, and even some arisen there; nay,
the Jews have reached this continent, with
a few Mahometans, Hindus, Chinese, Bud-
hists &c. Thus all the religions of the
earth are now found in this hemisphere, by
the tolerance and freedom of opinions lately
proclaimed in many parts.
Great has been the influence of 3 or 4
ages, on the American tribes, that have
been enslaved, or in frequent communica
tion with the nations of Europe not in
religion alone ; but in dress, manners,
knowledge, civilization and pursuits. The
alphabetical writing has been introduced
among them, the Tzulukis have invented
a syllabic alphabet; some arts, and the
pastoral nomadic life have been adopted.
In the boreal regions, the English and
Russians employ the hunting tribes as pro
viders of furs. In South America the
native tribes are often skillful fishermen or
116 GENERAL VIEW.
Upon the whole, the late prospects of
America are cheering. Many independent
nations have sprung, which deem them
selves Americans, and love their homes.
A general spirit of tolerance and peace is
spreading, the true religion of the heart
better understood; and a disposition is
evincing to render tardy justice to the op
pressed tribes, and the poor slaves. Those
who wish oppression and intolerance to be
perpetuated, are not many in this conti
nent, at present ; they will be fewer still in
half a century or the year 1892.
Thus, mankind lives in fluctuations of
mind and manners. A few ages have been
sufficient to produce these mighty changes.
Meanwhile, nature although changing slow
er, is still at work on the soil of this hemis
phere. Since 1492 volcanoes have appeared
and disappeared, the sea shores have re
ceded, the lakes are falling, the streams are
lessening, the mountains are crumbling, the
swamps are draining : immense forests have
been cut, and changed into ploughed fields,
hills have been cut or ploughed, roads,
causeways and canals made, splendid cities
have been built, with innumerable towns
and villages. The deltas of the Mississipi
and Magdalena have been cultivated, many
mines dug for metals or coals. The face
of the country has been quite changed in
these new seats of civilization ; in the re
gions of Apalacha from Canada to Louisi
ana, in Guyana, Brazil ; but in the western
regions from Mexico to Chili, agriculture
has rather receded : they had at least as
many towns and fields in ancient times.
Earthquakes and irruptions of the sea
have caused sad changes in other parts,
gulfs have been formed on the coast of
Cumana, Callao twice sunken in volcanic
tides, mountains and cities overthrown from
Popayan to Chili : while the alluvial forma
tions proceed along the streams and shores;
their floods are perennials, increasing deltas
and islands: Hurricanes scatter ruins and
dismay over the Antilles, whirlwinds pros
trate strips of forests. The spouting springs
and earthy volcanoes eject water, mud,
clay and marl, pitch and other substances.
The water volcanoes drown valleys and
cities, have ruined Guatimala, and deso
lated Quito. Mexico near a lake and often
overflowed by it, is now distantly removed ;
the lake having been drained by nature and
art jointly combined. (7)
These rapid sketches and views offer a
connected picture of men and soil, in this
hemisphere, during the ages past. The
detailed local annals of the various nations,
will enlarge the subject, and present the
required outlines of the ancient and modern
events of both.
NOTES TO CHAPTER iv.
1. The monumental archeology and his
tory of America, is not the least curious.
Humboldt opened the way ; but did little :
the facts since collected in Central and
North America, will astonish all the re
flecting minds, and lead us to times of great
civilization and prosperity. In the single
small state of Kentucky, have already been
found the sites of 200 ancient towns in
ruins, or having monuments. If as many
exist in all the neighbourhood, there must
have been 2000 towns in North America,
west and south of the Apalachian moun
tains. Many earthy remains are gradually
disappearing under the plough, and will be
obliterated ere long. See my account of
monumental sites, published in 1824.
2. The Tao is one of the earliest reli
gions of China. It is the personification
and worship of the powers of nature, the
earth, air, winds, thunder, sea, mountains,
lakes, trees &c. The spiritual worship of
their souls is the purest part of it, while the
blind material worship of the objects them
selves is the degradation of it, as in Egypt
3. See my Memoir on the Domestic
Annnals of Both Hemispheres, 1832, At
lantic Journal, where the names of all are
given. But I have collected a few more
4. By admixture with American women,
the Spaniards formed a mixed race in
Hayti, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay &c. ;
called Cholas, Mestizos &c. ; which par
took of the qualities and vices of both
races ; few great men have been produced
by them ; although we know of some
exceptions. Lavega one of the best Ame
rican historians was son of a Peruvian
princess by a Spaniard. In Paraguay the
Spaniards having no women, took Guarani
concubines, and all their offsprings were of
mixt breed, a sad set, like the Mamalucos
of Brazil born from Portuguese and Tupi
women. These instances, and the produc
tion of mulatoes subsequently, teach us
how some former nations were born in
5. The Missouri tribes, Panis and Cu-
manches, the Abipons and Talahets of the
vast plains of N. and S. America ; are al
ready become wandering horsemen like
Tartars, quite formidable in war. Many
tribes now possess and use guns. Brandy,
rum and whiskey, liquors of hell, . . make
the savage foes furious and reckless : they
have killed as many as guns have. The
small pox is another scourge sent to Ame
rica from Europe, the Cholera may be
another. The Syphilis wrongly ascribed
to America, has been traced to the ancient
continent also : although it was returned
from hence again, like maize.
6. The precious commodities of America
are numberless. If the Europeans had
traded there for them, as they now do in
China, Persia, Arabia and Africa, how
different would have been the fate of Ame
rica? Iron would have purchased gold
and pearls, with every thing else : there
was no need to use the steel swords, nor
thundering guns. Coffee and rice are not
American productions, but lately intro
duced from Arabia and India. The origin
of the sugar cane is also oriental ; but it
was found wild in South America, as
orange trees were in Florida.
7. The physical changes undergone in
America within late historical recollections
are very numerous, and ought to be col
lected into one connected body by historians
After these general topics on American
history, I had proposed to enter upon the
peculiar annals of nations, beginning by
Peru and Austral America ; but wishing to
give in this first volume something still
more novel and striking, I have concluded
to begin by the original unpublished annals
of the Linapis, and the neglected traditions
of the Haytians ; who assert to have come
into America, by the north west, and the
second through the Atlantic Ocean. I
hear besides that a French traveller D Or-
bigny, is now publishing in Paris, his tra
vels in Austral and Peruvian America, with
60 vocabularies of languages: where I may
perhaps find additioried materials for the
history of those regions.
LINAPI ANNALS. 121
Original Annals and Historical Tradi
tions of the LINAPIS, from the creation
to the flood, passage and settlements
in America, as far as the Atlantic
Ocean $c., till 1820 #c.
We have but few real American Annals,
given in the original peculiar style. Those
of Mexico, Guatimala, Apalacha, Hayti,
Peru, &c., have all been translated by
abridgements or paraphrases. Those of
the Ongwi by Cusick come nearest to the
aboriginal form, using the usual personifi
cations and animalizations of tribes, so
common all over America and Asia ; but
so often misunderstood : having perplexed
and disgusted the commentators or trans
lators ; who did not seize this form of style.
Even in China, the primitive inhabitants
often bear the names of beasts, Lung dra
gons, Chi birds, %ao wolf, Miao tygers.
In India we find snakes, monkeys, lions &c.
Early in Europe are dogs Canari and
Cynetes, satyrs, lions &c., syrens, harpies,
pegasus, centaurs, faunes, cyclops &e. (1)
In the Antilles the first inhabitants were
called beasts or Caracol, turtles Icota,
birds, opossums, seals, trees, stones, even
gourds and fruits. (Roman s Trad.) In
Peru we find tygers, lions, giants, pygmies,
snakes &c. In Mexico, birds, apes, snakes,
122 LINAPI ANNALS.
tygers, giants &c. While throughout North
America we find tribes of beavers, turtles,
wolves, dogs, deer, birds. We must learn
to appreciate this primitive form of speech
and style, as allegorical names of men &c.
It is very needful in order to understand
the following narratives.
Having obtained, through the late Dr.
Ward of Indiana, some of the original
Wallam-Olum (painted record) of the
Linapi tribe of Wapahani or White River,
the translation will be given of the songs
annexed to each: which form a kind of
connected annals of the nation. In the
illustrations of this history, will be figured
the original glyphs or symbols, and the
original songs, with a literal translation,
word for word. This will furnish a great
addition to our knowledge of American
graphics and philology ; but here the an
nals are chiefly interesting historically. I
have translated, however, all the historical
and geographical names, so as to afford a
better clue to the whole. (2)
We knew by all the writers who have
had friendly intercourse with the tribes of
North America, that they did possess, and
perhaps keep yet, historical and traditional
records of events, by hieroglyphs or sym
bols, on wood, bark, skins, in stringed
wampuns &c.; but none had been pub
lished in the original form. This shall be
the first attempt. Lederer saw 200 years
ago in Carolina, wheels of 60 rays, record-
LINAPI ANNALS. 123
ing events of 60 years. Humboldt has
mentioned the glyphical symbols of the
Hurons on wood, seen by the Jesuits.
Heckwelder saw the Olumapi or painted
sticks of the Linapis ; but did not describe
them ; he merely translated some of their
traditional tales : which agree in the main,
with these historical songs ^ yet the songs
appear mere abridgments of more copious
annals, or the bases of the traditions. The
Ninniwas or Chipiwas, the Ottowas, the
Sakis and Shawanis &c., all Linapi tribes,
have such painted tales and annals, called
Neobagun (male tool) by the former. Tan
ner has figured some of these pictured
songs or Neobagun, in his interesting Nar
rative. Loskiel has stated that the Lina
pis had complete genealogies, with symbols
expressing the deeds of each king. Beatty
in 1766 saw records 370 years old.
Out of these materials and other kept by
the Ozages, Cowetas, Tzulukis, Panis &c.,
might be formed or restored a peculiar
graphic system of north America, different
from the Mexican system ; and probably
once imported from Asia: where it may
be compared with the graphic symbols of
the Kuriles, Yakuts, Koriaks &c., indi
cated by Humboldt; but which are un
known to me. Meantime I shall give
materials for such researches in my illus
trations. The symbols, when met alone,
were inexplicable; but by obtaining the
124 LIN API ANNALS.
words or verses, (since they must commonly
be sung) we may acquire enough to lead on
further enquiries. The most obvious pe
culiarity of this system, is that each symbol
applies to a verse or many words ; as if the
ideas were amalgamated in the compound
system : yet they may often be analyzed,
and the elements ascertained or conjec
tured, by their repetition.
These historical songs of the Linapi, are
known to but few individuals, and must
be learned with much labor. Those ob
tained, consist of 3 ancient songs relating
their traditions previous to arrival in Ame
rica, written in 24, 16 and 20 symbols,
altogether 60. They are very curious, but
destitute of chronology. The second series
relates to America, is comprised in 7 songs,
4 of 16 verses of 4 words, and 3 of 20 ver
ses of 3 words. It begins at the arrival in
America, and is continued without hardly
any interruption till the arrival of the Eu
ropean colonists towards 1600. As 96
successive kings or chiefs are mentioned,
except ten that are nameless : it is suscep
tible of being reduced to a chronology of
96 generations, forming 32 centuries, and
reaching back to 1600 years before our
era. But the whole is very meagre, a
simple catalogue of rulers, with a few
deeds : yet it is equal to the Mexican an
nals of the same kind. A last song, which
has neither symbols nor words, consisting
LINAPI ANNALS. 125
in a mere translation, ends the whole, and
includes some few original details on the
period from 1600 to 1820. (3)
The orthograghy of the JLinapi names is
reduced to the Spanish and French pro
nunciation, except SH as in English, U as
in French, W as Hou.
If any one is inclined to doubt this his
torical account; the concurrent testimonies
of Loskiel and Heckewelder are my cor
roborant proofs. The words of Loskiel
The Delawares keep genealogies, with
; the character of each man, if wise, rich,
"renowned, or a mighty warrior. They
; use hieroglyphs on wood, trees and stones,
* to give caution, information, communicate
" events, achievements, keep records. Some
" time the hero has at his feet, men, heads
"or weapons. They have also paintings
" on skins of deeds, hunts, feats &c.
1. Song. The Creation fyc.
1. At first there was nothing but sea-
water on the top of the land, Aki.
2. There was much water, and much fog
over the land, and there .was also KITANI-
TOWIT, the God-creator.
3. And this God-creator was the first-
being (Saye-wis\ an eternal being, and in
visible although every where.
4. It was he who caused much water,
much land, much cloud, much heaven.
5. It was he who caused the sun, the
moon and the stars.
6. And all these he caused to move
7. By his action, it blew hard, it cleared
up, and the deep water ran off.
8. It looks bright, and islands stood
9. It was then, when again the God-
Creator made the makers or spirits.
10. And also the first beings Owiniwak,
and also the angels Angelatawiwak, and
also the souls Chichankwak, all them he
11. And afterwards he made the man-
being JIN-WIS, ancestor of the men. (5)
12. He gave him the first mother NETA-
MIGAHO, mother of the first beings OWINI. (6)
13. And fishes he gave him, turtles he
gave him, beasts he gave him, birds he gave
14. But there was a bad spirit Maki-
mani, who caused the bad beings Mako-
wini, black snakes Nakowak, and monsters
or large reptiles Amangamek.
15. And caused also flies, and caused
16. All the beings were then friends and
17. Thou being KIWIS, good God Wu-
NAND (these are 2 gods) and the good ma
kers or spirits were such.
18. With the Jins NIJINI, the first men,
and the first mother, their wives, which
were Fairies Nantinewak. (7)
LIN API ANNALS. 127
19. The first food of the Jins and Fairies
Pwas a fat fruit Gattamin.
20. All were willingly-pleased, all were
easy-thinking, and all were vell-happified.
21. But after awhile a Snake-priest,
Powako, brings on earth secretly the
Snake worship Initako, of the god of the
Snakes WAKON. (8)
22. And there came wickedness, crime
23. And bad weather was coming, dis
temper was coming, with death was coming.
24. All this happened very long ago, at
the first land Netamald, beyond the great
%d Song. The Flood <$>c.
1. There was long ago a powerful snake
Maskanako, when the men had become
bad beings Makowini.
2. This strong snuke had become the foe
of the Jins, and they became troubled, hat
ing each other. >
3. Both were fighting, both were spoiling,
both were never peaceful.
4. And they were fighting, least man
Mattapewi with dead-keeper Mhanlowit.
5. And the strong snake readily resolved
to destroy or fight the beings and the men.
6. The dark snake he brought, the mon
ster (Amangam) he brought, snake rush-
ing-water he brought.
7. Much water is rushing, much go to
hills, much penetrate, much destroying.
8. Meantime at TULA, at that island,
128 LINAPI ANNALS.
NAMA-BUSH (the great hare Nanci) became
the ancestor of beings and men.
9. Being born creeping, he is ready to
move and dwell at TULA. (9)
10. The beings and men (Owini and
lanowf) all go forth from the flood creep
ing in shallow water, or swimming afloat,
asking which is the way to the turtle back
TULAPIN. (This verse like many others
is in rhymes, and metre of 9 words of 3
11. But there were many monsters
(Amangcumelt) in the way, and some men
were Devoured by them.
12. But the daughter of a spirit, helped
them in a boat, saying come, come, they
were coming and were helped. (The
name of the boat or raft is Mokol.}
13. Nanabush, Nanabush, became the
grandfather of all, the grandfather of the
beings, the grandfather of the men, and the
grandfather of the turtles. (This is the be
ginning of a hymn to Nanabush, in rhymes,
lasting for 4 verses.)
14. The men were there, the turtle there,
they were turtling altogether. (Tulapewi
are the turtle-men
15. He was frightened, he the turtle, he
was praying, he the turtle, let it be to make
16. Water running off, it is drying, in
the plains and the mountains, at the path
of the cave, elsewhere went the powerful
action or motion.
LIN API ANNALS. 129
3d Song. Fate after the Flood.
1. After the flood, the manly men Lina-
pewi, with the manly turtle beings dwelt
close together at the cave house, and dwell
ing of Talli.
2. It freezes was there, it snows was
there, it is cold was there.
3. To possess mild coldness and much
game, they go to the northerly plain, to
hunt cattle they go.
4. To be strong and to be rich the comers
divided into tillers and hunters. Wikhi-
5. The most strong, the most good, the
most holy, the hunters they are. (10)
6. And the hunters spread themselves,
becoming northerlings, easterlings, souther-
lings, westerlings. Lowaniwi, Wapaniwi,
7. Thus the white country Lumonaki,
north of the turtle country, became the
hunting country of the turtling true men.
8. Meantime all the snakes were afraid
in their huts, and the snake priest Nako-
powa said to all, let us go.
9. Easterly they go forth at Snakeland
Akhokink, arid they went away earnestly
10. Thus escaping by going so far, and
by trembling the burnt land Lusasaki is
torn and is broken from the snake fortified
11. Being free, having no trouble, the
northerlings all go out, separating, at the
land of Snow Winiaken.
130 LINAPI ANNALS.
12. The fish resort to the shores of the
gaping sea, where tarried the fathers of
white eagle and white wolf. Waplanewa,
13. While our fathers were always boat
ing and navigating, they saw in the east
that the snake land was bright and wealthy.
(Here begins a fine poetical rhyming nar
rative). See Last Note.
14. The head-beaver Wihlamok, and
the big-bird Kicholen, were saying to all,
let us go to the Snake Island Akomen.
15. By going with us, we shall annihilate
all the snaking people, Wemaken.
16. Having all agreed, the northerlings
and easterlings, went over the water of the
frozen sea to possess that land.
17. It was wonderful when they all went
over the smooth deep water of the frozen sea,
at the gap of the Snake sea in the great ocean.
18. They were ten thousand in the dark,
who all go forth in a single night in the
dark, to the Snake island of the eastern
land Wapandki in the Dark, by walking
all the people. OLINI. (12)
19. They were the manly north, the man
ly east, the manly south ; with manly eagle,
manly beaver, manly wolf; with manly
hunter, manly priest, manly rich; with
manly wife, manly daughter, manly dog.
(12 words all homophonous rhymes.)
20. All coming there, they tarry at Fir-
land Shinaking. But the western men
doubtful of the passage, preferred to remain
at the old turtle land.
LINAPI ANXALS. 131
Thus end these interesting and positive
ancient traditions, by a fine poem on the
passage to America over the ice ; the Sha-
wanis have a similar poem : the Illinois had
also one, and almost every Linapi tribe.
They are perhaps lost ; but this being at
last rescued, will preserve the memory for
ever. Now begin the second series of
songs, in a different style, seldom rhyming,
but made metrical by an. equal number of
words in each verse, 4 in the 4 first which
carry the tribe till their conquest of the
Talegas ; but only 3 in the 3 later poems
on the subsequent history. Thus these
songs diminish in details as they advance ;
but they are mere abridgment of better
annals now probably lost. Numbers shall
be annexed to each successive king or
ruler, so as to compute the generations.
1. Song. At Shinaki till the 10 Kings
or Civil Wars.
1. Long ago, the fathers of men were
then at Shinaki or Firland.
2. The path leader was the white eagle
(Wapalanewa 1), who leads them all there.
3. The Snake island was a big land, a
fine land, and was explored by them.
4. The friendly souls, the hunting souls,
the moving souls, in assembly meet.
5. All say to him, beautiful-head (Kola-
wil 2) be thou king there.
6. The snakes are coming, thou killest
some, to Snake hill, let them all go.
7. All the snakes were quite weak, and
concealing themselves at the Bear hill.
132 LIN API ANNALS.
8. After Kolawil, white owl (Wapagok-
hos 3) was king at the Firland.
9. After him there lanotoici (4 true
maker) was king, and many things he did.
10. After him there Chilili (5 snowbird)
was king, who says let us go south.
11. To spread the fathers of men Wo-
kenapi, and to be able to possess much
12. South he goes the snowbird, but east
he goes the beaver-he Tamakwi. (Here
is the separation of the Dinnis.
13. A beautiful land was the south land,
the big Firland and the shoreland Shabi-
14. But the eastern land was a fish land,
and a lake land, and a cattle land.
15. After Chilili, the great warrior (Ay a-
mek 6) was king, when all the tribes were
16. There was war with the robbing-
men, snaking-men, blacking men, strong
men. Chikonapi, Akhonapi, Makatapi,
Assinapi. Thus ends the first song with
civil strife and great wars, dividing some
2d Song. From the 10 Kings till the
17. After Ayamek came ten kings, in
whose time there was much warfare south
and east. (14)
18. After them Langundowi (peaceful-
he, 17 kg.) was king at the beautiful land
Akolaking, and there was peace. (15)
19. After such Tasukamend (never-bad
LINAPI ANNALS. 133
18) was king, and he was a good or just
20. After such was king Pemaholend
(ever beloved 19) who did much good.
21. King afterwards was Matemik (town
builder 20) who built many towns, and
afterwards the holy goer Pilsohalin 21.
22. King afterwards was Gunokeni
(long while fatherly 22, who ruled long) and
afterwards the big teeth Mangipitak 23.
23. King afterwards was Olumapi (24
manly recorder or bundler) who caused
many writings. (16)
24. King afterwards was Takwachi (25
who shivers with cold) who went south to
the corn land Minihaking.
25. King afterwards was Huminiend
(26 corn eater) who planted much corn
26. King afterwards was Alkosahit (27
preserving keeper) who had a royal soul
and was very useful.
27. King afterwards was Shiwapi (28
salt man) and afterwards dry-he Penk-
28. There was no raining, and no corn
grew, east he goes far from the sea. (17)
29. Over hollow mountain Oligonunk,
at last to eat he went at a fine plain Kalok-
waming of the cattle land.
30. After Penkwonwi came Wekwo-
chella (30 much weary) after such the stiff
( Ch ingalsuwi 31.)
31. After such was Kwitikwund (32 the
134 LINAPI ANNALS.
reprover) who was disliked, and some un
willing to obey.
32. Being angry some moved easterly,
and secretly went far off.
3d Song. Prom the Missouri to tJic
33. But the wise did tarry, and Waka-
holend (33 the beloved) was made king.
34. It was at the Yellow River Wisa-
wana where there was much corn, large
meadows, and again were built towns. (18)
35. All being friends Tamenend (34
affable like a beaver) became king and was
alone the first. (19)
3G. Such Temenend was the very best,
and all the men came to him.
37. After such good Maskansisil (35
strong buffaloe) was king and chieftain or
38. MachigoJchos (36 big-owl) was king,
Wapkicholen (37 white crane) was king.
39. Wingenund (38 mindful) was king
and pontiff, who made many festivals. (20)
40. Lapawin (whitened 39) was king,
Wallama (40 painted) was king.
41. Waptiwapit (41 white chicken) was
king, again there is war north and south.
42. By the wise in assembly TamasJcan
(strong wolf 42) was made king.
43. He was able to war on all and he
killed the strong-stone Maskansini. (21)
44. Messissuwi (43 whole-he) was king
and made war on the snake-beings Akowini.
45. Chitanwulit (44 strong and good)
LINAPI ANNALS. 135
>vas king and made war on the northern
46. Alokuwi (45 lean he) was king and
made war on the father snake Towctkon.
47. Opekasit (46 east looking) was king,
being sad at the warfare.
48. To the sunrise he said let us go, and
they are many who together go east.
4th Song. Conquest of the Talegas fyc.
49. The fish river J\emasipi separated
the land, and being lazy they tarry there.
50. Yagawanend (47 hut maker) was
king, and the Tallegewi (there found) pos
sessing the east.
51. Chitanitis (48 strong friend) king
was, and he desires the rich land of the
52. To the east some did pass, but the
head of the Talegas, Talegawil killed some
53. Then of one mind, all say, warfare,
54. The friends of the north the Tala-
matan (who are not like the Talligewi,
the Hurons) were coming to go altogether
55. Kinehepend (49 sharp looking) was
king, and leader, over the river against foes.
56. Much was there possessed by them,
and much spoiling and killing of the Talegas.
57. Pimokhasuwi (50 stirring about) was
king, but he found the Talegas too strong
in the w r ar.
136 LINAPI ANNALS.
58. Tenchekensit (51 opening path) was
king, and many towns were given up to him.
59. Paganchihilla (52 great fulfiller)
was king, and all the Talegas went away
to the south.
60. Hattanwulaton (53 he has posses
sion) was king, and all the people were well
61. South of the lakes they settle the
council fire, and the friends Talamatan
north of the lakes.
62. But they were not always friends
and were conspiring when GunitaJcan (54
long mild) was king.
63. Linniwulamen (55 man of truth)
was king, and made war on the Talamatan.
64. ShaJcagapewi (56 just and upright)
was king, and the Talamatan were trem
SECOND SERIES OR MODERN HISTORY.
1st Song. At the Talega land.
1. All were peaceful long ago there at
the Talega land Talegaking.
2. Tamaganend (57 beaver leader) was
king at the White River or Wabash Wa-
3. Wapushuwi (58 white linx) was king
and planted much corn.
4. WulichiniJc (59 well hardy) was king,
and the people increased.
5. Lekhihitin (60. writer writing) was
king and painted many books Wallamo-
LINAPI ANNALS, 137
6. Kolaclmisen (61 pretty blue bird) was
king, at the place of much fruit Makeli-
ming. (near Cincinnati ?)
7. Pematalli (62 constant there) was
king and had many towns.
8. Pepomahemen (63 paddler up) was
king of many rivers and streams.
9. Tankawon (64 little cloud) was king,
while many went away.
10. The Nentegos and the Shawanis,
went to the south lands. (24.)
11. Kichitamak (65 big beaver) was
king at the white lick Wapahoning.
12. The heavenly prophet Onowutok
(66) went to the west. (25)
13. The west he visited, the forsaken
land and the western southerlings.
14. Pawanami (67 rich water turtle)
was king at the Ohio River Taleganah.
15. Lokwdend (68 walker) was king,
and had much warfare. (26)
16. Again with the father snake Towako,
again with the stony snake Sinako, again
with north snake Lowako.
17. Mokolmokom (69 the grand father
of the boats) was king and went snaking
18. Winelowich (70 snow hunter) was
king and went to the north land of the Es
19. Linkwekinuk (71 sharp looker) was
king and went to the Alleghariy Mountains
20. Wapalawikwan (72 east settler)
138 LIN API ANNAIJ8*
was king and went east of the Talega
Id Song. At the East till first White
21. This land of the east, was a large
land Amangald, and a long land Amigaki.
22. This land had no snakes, but was
a rich land, and many good things were
23. Gikenopalat (73 great warrior) was
king near the north.
24. Hanaholend (74 stream loving) was
king at the branching stream or Susque-
hanna Saskwihanang. (28)
25. Gattawisi (75 becoming fat) was
king at the sassafras land Winaki.
26 All the hunters reach the Salt Sea of
the sun GishiksJiapipek, which was again
a big sea.
27. Makhiawip (76 red arrow) was
king at the tide water.
28. Wolomenap (77 hollow man) was
king at the strong falls (of Trenton) Mas-
29. The Wapanand (ensters) and the
Tumewand (wolfers or Mohigans) north
east they go. (29)
30. Wulitpallat (78 good fighter) was
king and set against the north.
31. The Mahongwi (lickers or Iroquois)
and the Pungelika (the lynx like or Eries)
were all trembling there.
32. Again Tamenend (79 beaver II) was
king there, and with all he made peace.
LINAPI ANNALS. 139
33. And all became friendly, and all be
came united, with this great ruling king. (30)
34. Kichitamak (80 great beaver) was
king and remains at the sassafras land or
37. Wapahakey (81 white body) was
king and went to the Sea Shore on Jersey
38. Elangomel (82 friendly to all) was
king and much good was done.
39. Pitenumen (83 mistaker) was king,
and saw some one come from somewhere.
40. At this time from the east sea was
coming a whiter Wapsi. (31)
3d Song. Till the arrival of Colonies.
41. Makelomush (84 much honored) was
king and made all happy.
42 Walakeningus (85 well praised) was
king and became a warrior of the south.
43. He must make war on the Cheroki
Snakes Otaliwako, and on the Coweta
44. WapagamoshM (86 white otter) was
king, ally of the Lamatan or Hurons.
45. Wapashum (87 white big horn) was
king and visited the west land of Talega.
46. There he found the Illinois Hiliniki,
the Shawanis Shawoniki, and the Conoys
47. Nitispayat (88 friendly comer) was
king, and he went to the big lakes.
48. And he visited all the beaver-children
or Miamis, and all the friends or allies. (32)
49. Pakimitzin (89 cranberry eater)
140 LINAPI ANNALSv
was king, and made alliance with the
50. Lowaponskan (90 north walker) was
king, and he visited the noisy place or
51. Tasliawinso (91 at leisure gatherer)
was king, and visited the Sea shores.
52. Then the offspring, in three desiring,
three to be, and they became the Turtle
tribe, the Wolf tribe, and the Turkey tribe.
Unamim, Minsimini, Chikimini. (33)
53. Epallahchund (92 failer) was king,
in the war with the Mahongwi^ wherein
he fails. (34)
54. Langomuwi (93 friendly he) was
king and the Mahongwi were frightened.
55. Wangomend (94 saluted) was king
56. The Cherokis Otaliwi and Wasio-
towi (those of the Otali and Wasioto mts.)
were his fees. (35)
57. Wapachikis (95 white crab) was
king and ally a friend of Jersey on the
58. Nenachihat (90 watcher) was king
and looking at the sea.
59. At this time north and south the
Wap&yachik came, the white or eastern
60. They were friendly, and came in big
bird-ships, who are they ? (36)
Thus end these poetical annals, so cu
rious and so plain, when properly under
stood and translated. The following addi-
LIN API ANNALS. 141
ion is merely a fragment on the subsequent
period, translated by John Burns. I give
it as received although I fear it is inaccu
rate in some respects, and a paraphrase
rather than literal account. Yet by this
addition, we obtain a kind of general his
tory of at least one American tribe, and a
complete original series of traditions, in
their peculiar pristine style. Many others
will bo added hereafter, either from printed
traditions, or historical songs and fragments.
Fragment on the history of the Linapis
from about 1600 till 1820.
1. Alas, alas! we know now who they
are, these Wapsinis (white people) who
then came out of the sea, to rob us of our
country. Starving wretches ! with smiles
they came ; but soon became snaking foes.
2. The Wallamohim was written by Lek-
hibit (the writer) to record our glory. Shall
I write another to record our fall ? No ! our
foes have taken care to do it ; but I speak
to thee what they know not or conceal.
3. We have had many other kings since
that unhappy time. They were 3 till the
friendly Mikwon (Penn) came. Mattani-
kum (not horned, not strong, see Note 37)
when the Winakoli (Swedes note 38)
came to Winaki. Nahumen (raccoon)
when the Sinalwi (Dutch) came. And
Ikwahon (fond of women) when the Yank-
wis (English) came, with Mikwon and his
friends soon after.
4. They were all received and fed with
corn ; but no land was ever sold, we never
142 LIN API ANNALS.
sell any. They were all allowed to dwell
with us, to build houses and plant corn, as
our friends and allies. Because they were
hungry, and thought children of Gishaki
(the sun land) and not snakes nor children
of snakes. (39)
5. And they were traders, bringing fine
new tools, and weapons, and cloth, and
beads, for which we exchanged skins and
shells and corn. And we liked them, with
their things, because we thought they were
good, and made by the children of GishaM.
6. But alas ! they brought also fire guns
and fire waters, which burned and killed.
Also baubles and trinkets of no use ; since
we had better ones.
7. And after Mikwon, came the children
of Dolojo-Sakima (King George) who
said, more land, more land we must have,
and no limit could be put to their steps and
8. But in the north were the children of
Lowi-Sakima, (King Louis), who were
our good friends, allies of our allies, foes of
our foes : yet Dolojo always wanted to war
9. We had 3 kings after Mikwon came.
Skalichi who was another Tamenend (40),
and Sasunam Wikwikhon (our uncle the
builder), and Tatami (the beaver taker)
who was killed by a Yankwako (English
snake), and we vowed revenge.
10. Nctatawis (first renewed being)
became king of all the nations in the west,
again at Talligewink (Ohio or the Talega
LIXAPI ANNALS. 143
>lace) on the river Cayahaga, with our old
allies the Talamatans-. and he called on
all of the east.
11. But Tadeskung was chief in the east
at Mahoning and bribed by the Yankwis :
there he was burnt in his house, and many
of our people were massacred at Hickory
(Lancaster) by the land robbers Yankwis.
12. Then we joined our friend Lowi in
war against the Yankwis ; but they were
strong, and they took Lowanaki (north
land, Canada) from Lowi, and came to us
in Talegawink) when peace was made;
and we called them big knives Kichikani.
13. Then Alimi (white-eyes) and Gele-
lenund (buck killer) were chiefs, and all
the nations near us were allies under us as
our grandchildren again. (41)
14. When the eastern fires were set up,
and began to resist Dolojo, they said we
should be another fire with them. But
they killed our chiefs Unamiwi (turtling)
and our brothers on the Muskingum. Then
Hopokan (strong pipe) of the Wolf tribe
was made king, and he made war on the
Kichikani Yankwis, and become the ally
of Dolojo who was then very strong.
15. But the eastern fires were stronger,
they did not take Lowanaki (Canada) but
become free from Dolojo. We went to
Wapahani (white river) to be further from
them; but they follow every where, and
we made war on them, till they sent Mak-
hiakho (black snake, General Wayne) who
made strong war. (42)
144 LINAPI ANNALS.
16. We made peace and settle limits.
Our next king was Hacking- Ponskan
(hard walker) who was good and peaceful.
He would not even join our brothers Sha-
wanis and Ottawas, nor Dolojo in the next
17. Yet after the last peace, the Kichi-
kani-Yankwis came in crowds all around
us, and they want also our lands of Wapa-
Jtani. It was useless to resist, because
they are getting stronger by increasing
18. Kithtilkund and Lapanibi (white
water) were the chiefs of our two tribes,
when we resolved to exchange our lands,
and return at last beyond the Masispek
(muddy water, Mississippi) near to our old
19. We shall be near our foes the Wa-
kon (god of snakes, the Ozages) but they
are not worse than the Yankwiakou (Eng
lish snake), who want to possess the whole
big island. (44)
20. Shall we be free and happy there ?
at the new Wapahani (western white riv
er). We want rest, and peace, and wisdom.
Such is one of the accounts of the trans
actions between this people and the English,
United States &c ; of which Loskiel, Holm
and Hekewelder have furnished other frag
ments, and for which we have ample mate
rials in the colonial history and late records.
But this offers some new views and facts :
which shall be partly compared and dis
cussed in the notes; but more properly
LINAPI ANNALS. 145
examined and united in accordance with
other narratives, in the history of the North
American nations and tribes. The 11
kings in about 2*20 years named in this
fragment, indicate 107 altogether till 1820
That so many generations and names can
be recollected, may appear doubtful to some;
but when symbolic signs and paintings,
with poetical songs, are added, the memory
can well retain and perpetuate their con
nection. Even in Polynesia, where we
are not told of symbols, but mere historical
songs, they reach to the creation and flood ;
Ellis and Tierman tell us that the kings
and priests of Tahiti, Ulieta or Raiaka,
Hawahi, Mowi &c. could repeat the names
of ancestors and kings for 100 generations.
It would have been well if instead of giving
us mere fragments of the songs and names,
they had translated the whole, and thus
furnished the connected annals of Polynesia.
In the Liriapi annals, we find not merely
their own deeds; but the mention of many
other nations, friends, allies or foes, as in
Cusick s Traditions of the Ongwis: and
this forms another clue for American his
tory. As early as the Asiatic period we
find them united to the related people
Owini and Nijini, before the flood, and call
ing their foes Powako (rich snake), Ma-
kowini (bad being,) Maskanako (strong
snake), similar to the satanic tribes of the
Hebrews &c. (45)
146 LIN API ANNALS.
At the flood they arc saved with the
Tulapin turtlemen, and begin to call
themselves Linapewi. Soon after they
separate, go north and divide into tribes,
named after the winds, the mode of life
and animals. The hunters are Elowi Elo-
him of the orientals, or Heros and Hercules;
they again meet snakemen, who fly to Ame
rica and must have produced there many
After having filled the north, and after
the breaking of the land, at Behring strait,
part of the nation resolve to follow and
pursue the snakes to the east. The passage
by the Olinis over the hard sea or ice, is
beautifully sung in a peculiar hymn (see
last note); they settle at Shinaki, and begin
again to war on snakemen : after which the
beaver men or Tamakwi separate going east
where they became the Dinni nations, yet
called beaver tribes, who ascribe their ori
gin to a beaver and a dog, and call their
ancestor Chapewi, similar to Apiwi, the
manly in Linapi.
Meantime the main tribe going south
meets other nations which it is difficult to
identify, as the names are mere epithets
and nicknames, yet the Assinipi or stony
men, appear to be the Dacota or Sioux yet
called Assini or stony by the tribes of Lin
api origin. They reappear afterwards as
Maskan-sini or Sinako, and appear to have
passed to America soon after the Linapi.
They are certainly of Asiatic origin, as the
LINAPI ANNALS. 147
languages prove, and very akin to the Hu-
rons or Ongwis in America.
The Akowini are met again, which ap
pear to have become the ancestors of the
Covvetas and many Florida tribes. The
Lowamiski were either the Uskis or the
Skeres. The Towakon were not the Otta-
was; but probably the Ozages or their
ancestors the Wakons. (46)
At last they meet the civilized Talegas,
who are not called snakes, but rather ex
tolled, and from whom they borrowed many
things : their symbol is very different from
that of the snakes. They were probably
of eastern or atlantic origin, akin to the
Tols, Talascas, and Telicos the ancient
Cherokis. The Talamatan become allies,
were the Hurons, the name means both un
like the Talegas and killer of the Tolas.
See Cusick, and my Huron Traditions for
their own annals.
The separations of the Nentegos and
Shawanis, Mohigans, and Wapanends or
Abenakis, are distinctly given; they filled
the sea shores from Florida to Acadia.
Three tribes of snakes reappear which are
similar to the former, except the Lowako
probably the same as LowanuskL After
crossing the Alleghanies Tamenend II. re
unites all the tribes. The Hiliniki and
Conowiki easily identified remain west of
the mountains. The Iroquois and Eries
appears under peculiar Linapi names.
The Otalis and Cowetas appear soon
148 LINAPI ANNALS.
after as snakes or foes ; whether the Otalis
or Cherokis of the mountains were real
snakes of the west is doubtful ; it is more
likely that they are a fragment of the Teli-
cos, which was their capital till lately, and
later they are called Otaliwi by the Linapis.
Compare the Tzuluki traditions with these.
The Tawas who call themselves fathers,
as the Linapi grandfathers, of all the akin
tribes, had then towards 1400, a great
power in the west: their empire had a
pontiff MusJikiwis near lake Michigan, on
whom Cass has given some very important
The following chief chronological periods
are deducible from these annals, by reck
oning 3 generations in a century. About
1600 years before Christ passage of Beh-
ring strait on the ice, lead by Wapalanewa,
settlement at Shinalci.
1450. Chilili leads them south, and the
1040. Peace after long wars under Lan-
gundewi at the land AkolaMng.
800. Annals written by Olnmapi.
750. Takwaclii leads to Minikaking.
650. Penkwonwi leads east over moun
460. The first Tamenend great king on
60. Opekasit leads to the Mississippi.
About 50 years of our era, alliance with
the Talamatans against the Talegas.
150. Conquest or expulsion of the Talegas.
400. Lekhihitan writes the annals.
540. Separation of the Shawanis and
800. Wapalawikwan leads over Alle-
ghany mountains to AmangakL
970. Wolomenap settles the central capi
tal at Trenton, and the Mohigans separate.
1 170. Under Pitenumen arrival of Wapsi
the first white men or Europeans.
NOTES TO CHAPTER v.
1. These two figures of speech, Per son-
ification and Animalization, are two of the
keys of ancient history. By the first is not
meant alone the personification of the pas
sions or divine attributes ; but likewise the
individuality of men, tribes and nations
pervading primitive history, by the frequent
substitution of the singular for the plural,
as was done by the Asiatics, the Greeks,
and the Americans. It is thus that the
ancient patriarchs, Hercules, Heros, Gods
&/c. are often meant for their followers;
the head for the whole set or social body.
This practice has survived to our days,
and we mean all the English when we speak
of John Bull, the Russians by the Nor
thern Bear (a kind of animalization), all
the Turks by the Grand Turk &c. The
reverse mode of speech or the employment
of the plural for the singular, is less fre
quent : but used when we substitute in our
modern languages, We and You instead of
I or Thee. It was less common anciently,
yet it appears Moses employed it when he
called God, ALEIM our Elohim or the
Angels, and polytheism was the conse
quence of similar mistakes or substitutions;
but in his account of the patriarchs, he has
used the individuality of tribes.
Animalization pervades the whole of the
fabulous periods of history. It is to this
mode of speech that we owe the fables of
Pilpay and Esopus, where animals are
made to speak. Whenever we meet in
history or fables, animals acting like men
and conversing, they are surely men, and
often tribes individualized by an animal
appellation : such as might be emblematic
or patronymic, adopted honorable names,
as lion, tyger eagle ; or else nicknames
given in derision by foes, such as snake,
dog, ape &c. Even the Hebrew had their
Cherubim, who were beings like a man, a
lion, ox, and eagle ; who drove the Adam
ites from Eden. This name is preserved
by the Turks in Cher obi or Ckehibi, which
means Lords in the old Turkish language
of Turan or Tartary. Perhaps also in the
El-abi, now Arabians, which meant Angel-
fathers, or our forefathers the angelic men.
Elapi means the most manly in Linapi !
2. The word Olum is remarkable, be
cause it is analogous to the GLEN, the
legislator and teacher of Runes of the
Celts. The writings of the Druids and
Irish were called OCOL, C ALLAN, OGHAM,
the Irish OLAM were recorders and teach
ers. Olum does not properly mean a writ
ing, since Leki is book, paper or letter in
Linapi ; but it implies a record, a notched
stick, an engraved piece of wood or bark.
It comes from Ol hollow or graved record.
Hekewelder says that Oluma-pisid was in
the 18th century, a king of the Linapis on
the river Susquehanna, who kept the Olum
or records of the nation. It is probable
these were part of them.
3. These actual Olum were at first ob
tained in 1820, as a reward for a medical
cure, deemed a curiosity ; and were unex-
plicable. In 1822 were obtained from an
other individual the songs annexed thereto
in the original language ; but no one could
be found by me able to translate them. 1
had therefore to learn the language since,
by the help of Zeisberger, Hekewelder and
a manuscript dictionary, on purpose to
translate them, which I only accomplished
in 1833. The contents were totally un
known to me in 1824, when I published my
Annals of Kentucky ; which were based on
the traditions of Hekewelder, and those
collected by me on the Shawanis, Miamis,
4. This account of the creation is strik
ingly similar to the mosaic and oriental
accounts; although it does not speak of
days or Yums. The word for angels An-
gelatawiwak, is not borrowed, but real
Linapi, put in the plural : thus the same
as the Greek Angelos.
5. Jin-wis is the AISH or Adam of all
the Linapi tribes. WIS is identic with
ISH, W being the article he, WI added
to words is common, meaning but he, she
and they, the plural wok means many.
6. Owint may be analyzed O-WI-NI,
meaning such-they-men or beings. O is
the common article for pronouns On and Ce
of the French, in English such, it, this, these,
preserved in many Linapi dialects, JVi and
Ini mean both me, I, my and men. It must
be noticed that many words of these two
ancient songs are often obsolete now in
some modern dialects; but preserved in
others. This with the peculiar ancient
style, and the many words suppressed in
the narrative, and the constant compound
words, have rendered this translation a
7. Here the Omni become Ni-jini, evi
dently the Jins of China and Iran; Jains
8. Wakon is the god of all the Missouri
tribes, and many Asiatic nations. AJcon
9. Tula is the ancient seat of the Tol-
tecas and Mexican nations in Asia : the
Tulan or Turan or Central Tartary. In
Linapi the meaning is Turtle or Tortoise,
names derived from Thor turtle in Hebrew.
But all derive from strong and tall. Tul-
ap-in is the real tortoise of Linapi meaning
strong-manly-thing : the water soft turtle
is called UnamL The Chinese, Hindus
&c. point also to a turtle as the TUBE
refuge of the flood. Nana appears Noah ;
his title of Hare must allude to his long
ears ? All the Linapi tribes have tales and
songs on Nana-bush, which they venerate
as a god ; but his symbol is a turtle body
with a large head and nose, and a crest of
feathers or hair on the head.
10. The symbol is a kind of Hercules,
with a club and arrow ; his name appears
to be Eluwi, thrice repeated and meaning
the most he. Elu the root is probably akin
to the Aleim or Elohim of Moses, and
Elai meaning strong in Hebrew : also to
Her-culrt: of 1-.3 Lai lecn of the
Greek, Her prefixed meaning Lord.
11. This alludes to the formation of Beh-
ring strait. Mena means both an island, a
fort, castle or strong place. Menapit is
also the name of Tula in the 8th verse of
the first song, and thus the ark. In Persian
Ark is a fort, in Syrian a boat.
12. Here the people begin to be called
O-LINI, this was probably their old name
when coming to America. The tribes that
used R for L must have said O-rini, those
who have neither, as the Niniwas and
Ottawas, say O-ninL This will afford
matter for many philological enquiries and
13. Woken-api properly "me an the fa
thers manly. Shinaki the first seat in
America must have been near Alaska, and
the big Shinaki, the N. W. coast.
14. It is doubtful whether these 10 name
less kings were successive or contemporary
during the civil strifes. But the first is most
probable. If otherwise, this lessens the
15. This southern land of Akolaking,
and the subsequent Mimhdking^ cannot
be identified; but were west of Oregon
mountains, probably the Oregon country.
16. As early as 72 generations before
1600 or about 800 years before our era, we
find a recorder of old events, by means of
Olum. Compare Olen and Olam of Celts.
17. Here this people leave at last the
Sea shores, and strike to the east over the
mountains. In Oligon, we have the ety
mology of Oregon.
18. Wisawana is either the Missouri or
19. This Tamcnend is famous in the
songs of the Linapis, and many kings took
that title afterwards. He is also the Amik-
wi or great beaver of the Miamis and
20. Wingenund must have been another
legislator, and high-priest. His festivals
are called Gentiko, and known to many
21. Maskan-Sini, must be the Sioux and
Assinis, called stony or hard people through
out North America. The subsequent foes
Akowini appear to be the Kowetas^ the
Lowanuski are the Esquimaux, Lowakon
are the Ozages and Missouri tribes. Thus
this was a period of invasions by many na
tions, which compelled the Linapis to go
22. The Nemasipi is the Mississippi, so
says Hekewelder : where began the wars
with the Talegas, the northern Toltecas
or Atlantes, towards 48 generations before
1000, near the beginning of our era, which
continued for 4 generations or over 130
years, till about 150 after Christ. The
allies Talamatans are the Hurons and Iro-
quois then united, since called Delamatan
and Lamatan. The traditions of Heke
welder and Cusick both agree here in fact
and time. That of Hekewelder is most
ample, taken from other songs ; but these
supply names omitted by both. I rather
think the Nemtfsipi must have been the
Ozages or Illinois river, since the Missis
sippi is called afterwards Masispek, and the
monuments of the Talegas are found west
of it at St. Louis &c.
In my ancient history of Kentucky, hav
ing only for guide Hekewelder and some
other traditions, I placed the conquest of
the Talegas about 500 of our era; but
these annals are more correct and remove
further this event. The computation of
Cusick annals of Ongwis place this great
event still earlier, or between 300 and 100
years before our era. I knew neither Cu
sick nor the Wallam-Olum in 1824.
23. Here we find another recorder of
events who probably wrote the former wars
with the Talegas.
24. The Linapi tribes begin to disperse
now, about 600 years of onr era.
25. This prophet, pontiff and king, went
probably to .visit many tribes, and became
26. These new wars were again with
the Missouri tribes, Lowako is a new in
vading tribe from the north.
27. The passage of the Alleghanies was
towards 800 of our era: the atlantic states
appear to have had no inhabitants, or but
few. Hekewelder confirms these facts.
28. Hekewelder has given no etymology
of this river, the name means either branch
ing or roaring stream, perhaps both. Wi-
naki was the name of east Pennsylvania.
29. By this account tl* ? Mohigans only
separated towards 970 from the main body.
This may be inaccurate, as the north-east
tribes appear older by their traditions.
By the account given by the missionary
Beatty in 1766, this event would be still
later : he states that after separating from
the western tribes and long wanderings, the
Lenaps (Linapis) settled on the river Dela
ware 370 years before 1766, or in 1396;
which was preserved in a mosaic bfelt.
See Moultorfs Hist, of New -York, Vol L
30. This is the second Taraenend who
united all the tribes 1010. This famous
name is spelt very variously Tainanend,
Tamany, Tamini &c. all meaning beaver-
ing or acting like a beaver. There are
many songs and traditions on them.
31. Here is the first mention of white
men towards 1170 by the computation of
generations: whether they were Eric or
Madoc, or both, will be enquired hereafter.
The Tuscororas of North Carolina were
visited at the same time by Cusick tradi
tion, the Mohigans had also their Wach-
queow. Hekewelder has omitted this
tradition like many others. But Holm in
his description of New Sweden positively
gives two traditions of the Liriapis, tribe
Renapis, of a white woman who came to
America, married an American, had a son,
who went to heaven ; and of 2 bigmouths (or
preachers) who came afterwards with long
beards, and also went to heaven. This
relates to the bishop Eric who went to
convert the Americans between 1120 and
1160, rather than Madoc or a warlike band.
32. The Miamis or M amiwis were de
scendants of the first beaver tribe, separated
33. This verse is double, or has 2 sym
bols with 6 words, appearing to be two
different readings united, or two modes of
expressing the same thing, the separation
of the real Linapis into three tribes.
34. This may allude to the subjection of
the Linapis, by the M&hongwis (Mengwi
or Iroquois) about this time, caused by the
division of the tribes. The name of failer
is certainly an epithet or nickname given :
most of the names of kings appear of the
same kind or titles. We know they changed
names when becoming kings or after great
35. Otali is the real name of the Cheroki
mountaineers, so says Adair : this recalls
the Talegas to mind, of whom they may be
a fragment. The Wasioto are the Cum
berland mountains, meaning the South
Sioto. The Siotos were a Missouri tribe
that advanced as far as the Sioto river in
Ohio, gave name to it, and were expelled
by the Ottawas ; probably akin to the Otos
of Missouri. They bear the snake sign in
36. The symbolic glyph for this event is
nearly the same as for the arrival of Wapsi
or Eric. A sea, a boat, with mast, sail,
and cross over it. Every nation is denoted
by a peculiar sign on the head in these an
nals, 1. Jinwis and his wife by an aureole,
2. the Ako or snakes by a forked tongue
or 2 horns, 3. the Jins by a crown of rays,
4. the Owinis by a feather, 5. the kings by
3 feathers, the medial longer, 6. the Esqui
maux by a T, 7. the Talamatans by the
same reversed j,, 8. the Talegas by a bar
pointing to the right, 9. the Nentegos by a
hook, 10. the Europeans by a cross. This
erinces a kind of systematic symbolic plan,
like the Mexican ; but the symbols are very
37. Mattanikum appears to be both the
Tinikum and Mattaliorn of the Swedes
and Holm. Horn is not a Linapi word,
but Swedish, so as to translate half the
name. He was king in 1645.
38. Holm says the Renapis called the
Swedes, Akhoures, which in dialect Linapi
would be Akoli, meaning ugly or snake-
looking ; the prefix Win, means either the
beings or snow, or may refer to Winaki.
39. The assertion that no land was ever
sold to the colonists is singular. They
thought to buy land with trifling presents;
but the natives understood all the while the
permission to dwell with them.
40. This is a third Tamanend, the great
king of the whole nation dwelling at the
forks of the Delaware, which appears in
Penn s treaties, and came in great pomp in
1697. The other chiefs mentioned in deeds,
were only his vassals : he is also called
Taminy; but is very different from Tatami
who was king till 1748 at Welakamika or
Nazareth, where he was killed by an Irish
settler. Hekewelder mentions him; but
has many blunders on Tamanend, having
mixt the three into one.
41. Netawatwis was king in the west
from 1748 till 1776. Alimi or Coquetha-
gekton (Heck) was regent of his grandson
Unamiwi till 1780, after him Gelelelund
was regent till 1782 when the boy Unamiwi
was killed by the Bigknives. (Heck.) thi*
was the cause of the wars till 1795.
42. General Wayne was compared to
their old foes, and called Black Snake> be
cause he beat the allied nations.
43. These are the chiefs of the two united
tribes, that appear in the last treaty with
the United States.
44. The United Stated here are called
snakes like the oldest foes of mankind.
The insiduous manner in which the English
settled North America, and wronged the
natives, has procured them that appellation.
The French and Canadians are never called
snakes. The former names of .Yantywis
has only been preserved as our Yankees.
The belief of their being Gishakis or chil
dren of the sun-land, at the sun-rise, has
long been exploded here as in South Ame
rica. The Spanish cruelties did since pro
cure to the Castillians the names of devils,
assassins, snakes of the sea &c.
45. Many other notions on the primitive
nations, may be collected from the mytho
logies of the various Linapi tribes. Their
true devils are similar te vampyres.
46. Wakon is the god and ancestor of
all the Washashas or Ozage tribes, Arkan-
zas, Sioux &c belonging to the Capaha or
Missouri group of nations.
Additional Note. As a specimen of the
original text and poetry of these annals, I
give now the poem on the passage to Ame
rica : the whole text and all the symbols will
be given hereafter.
14k Wihlamok Kicholen luchundi
Wematan akomen luchundi.
15. Witehen wemiluen
16. Nguttichin Lowaniwi
17. Wulelemil W shakuppek
18. Tellenchen Kittapaki nillawi
Wemoltin gutikuni nillawi
Akomen wapanaki nillawi
Ponskan-ponskan wemiwi Olini
19. Lowanapi Wapanapi Shawanapi
Lanewapi Tamakwapi Tumewapi
Elowapi Powatapi Wilawapi
Okwisapi Danisapi Allumapi.
20. Wemipayat guneunga Shinaking
Wunkenapi chanelendam payaking
Allowlendam kowiyey Tulpaking.
162 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
THE POETICAL ANNALS AND TRADITIONS OF
THE HAYTIANS OR TAINOS OF THE AN
TILLES, collected in 1498 by ROMAN &/c.
with additions by DANGLERIA and
others, Notes, Remarks, and Ancient
Roman was a Jeromitan friar, come with
Columbus, who began to convert the Hay-
tians in 1496, and collected their traditions,
after learning their language, out of the
Areitos or songs and hymns used in festi
vals. He wrote them in 1498 by order of
Columbus, and they are inserted at large
in his life by his son ; but were almost ne
glected by Irving. They give us not only
an insight into the belief, religion, traditions
of the Antillian people ; but also a com
pendium of fragments on their annals.
Although very desultory, much less connec
ted than those of Mexico, the Linapis, Ong-
wis &c., and destitute of chronology ; yet
they afford an essential addition to Ameri
can history, and the ancient accounts about
the Atlantis and Antilles.
In order to bring them into a kind of
order, they shall be analyzed, reduced to
a succession of events and divided into 3
parts, 1. Cosmogony and Theogony, 2.
the flood and primitive history, 3. ancient
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 163
history previous to Columbus or 1492. A
fourth part foreign to these traditions would
be their annals since that time, and till the
extinction of the nation; which shall be
given hereafter, with the account of the
language, and civilization What is pecu
liar to these traditions among the Ameri
cans, are the metamorphoses of men into
beasts &c., as in Ovid.
The nation who furnished these annals,
was the Haytian of Hayti, a branch of the
nation dwelling also in Cuba, and filling
the Lucayes and smaller Antilles : whose
collective proper name was TAINO meaning
noble. But they acknowledged as brothers,
many tribes of the continent under the col
lective name of GUATIAOS brothers, this
was ascertained in 1520 by Figueroa.
(See Herrera.) These Guatiaos were the
Aruac nations and tribes, that were not
cannibals. These tribes as enumerated by
Figueroa in 1520 were in the Antilles the
1. Haytians, 2. Cubans, 3. Jamaicans, 4.
Boriquans (Porto Rico), 5. Cairis that
dwelt in Trinidad, Barbuda, Marmagitas
and Gianis Islands. While those of the
continent were the 1. Aruacas of Guyana,
2. Paracurias of Cubagua, 3. Urinatos of
Oronoc, 4. Pavonas of Cariaco, 5. Cariatis,
6. Cumanas, 7. Chiribichis, 8. Coquibocoa,
9. Unatos. These five last were intermixt
with the Canibas or Caribas, the cannibal
tribes, foes of the Guatiaos, which are the
Galibis and Carib tribes; that had deso-
164 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
lated and conquered most of the eastern
All the Tainos spoke the same language
divided into several dialects; but under
stood reciprocally. D Angleria tells us in
1512 that two distinct languages were used
in Cuba, the eastern was a mere dialect of
Hayti ; but in the west was a very different
language not understood; this was the
Cami derived from the Olrncca of Oaxaca
or the Maya of Yucatan ; they having sent
there a colony, and founded a kingdom.
(see the Maya History.) In Hayti there
was also in the center of the island a king
dom of Mayas? the people were called
Mayo-riexes or Macoryxes, (meaning
Maya people). They spoke a language
different from the Haytian (Dangleria)
divided into 3 dialects Cayabo, Cubaba,
and Baichagua. This kingdom of stran
gers was called Cubaba or Caibaba, and
Ziguayos. They are called Caribs by
some authors ; but erroneously. (1)
Many other additional traditions on the
Antilles are scattered in early writers,
D Angleria, Gomara, Herrera, Munoz,
Acosta, St. Mery, Oviedo, Columbus, Brig-
stock, Rochefort, Edwards, Garcia, Laet,
&c. which shall be partly noticed here as
a sequel to Roman, and all connected as a
general outline of a history of the Antillian
Having succeeded to make out a fine
vocabulary of nearly three hundred words
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 165
of the Taino dialects, collected from Ro
man, Columbus, Dangleria, Munoz, Las-
Casas, Herrera, Gili, Humboldt, Vater
&c. and another of about 150 words of
the Cairi or Eyeri language of the Aruac
Islanders out of Dudley, Rochefort &c.
I will be enabled to translate and elucidate
nearly all the Taino historical names and
allusions, so as to clear up the annals by
original etymologies. The orthography
will be Spanish, J must be pronounced as
The Haytians had besides these songs,
other annals ; since the priests taught his
tory, and the origin of things to the sons of
the nobles. They had also perhaps pecu
liar symbols to keep their records, since
Dangleria mentions that they had paintings
of beasts, tygers, eagles &c. on cotton,
hung to walls. St. Mery says that in 1787
was found in the mountains of Guanaminto
a tomb with a stone of 6 feet covered with
hieroglyphs ! and in the mountains of Lim-
be, engravings of human figures on a ser
pentine rock ; besides many sculptures in
Caves. Columbus saw in 1492 in Inagua
one of Lucayes a gold medal with letters
on it ! If we had figures of these hiero
glyphs and engraved symbols, we should
probably obtain another clue to American
history and graphic systems. But they are
probably lost by neglect like those of North
America ! The Antilles being on the way
from the east to the continent must have
166 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
served as a stepping place to many nations
on their passage to the continent. (2)
1st Part. Theogony and Cosmogony.
1. Fact. The Supreme God, bears
five names or titles given by Roman and
Dangleria in two dialects, and is male or
By Roman By Dangleria Meanings*
1. Attabei Attabeira Unic-Being.
2. Jemao Mamona Eternal.
3. Guacas or Apito Guaca-rapita Infinite.
4. Apito or Siella Liella Omnipotent.
5. Zuimaco Guimazoa Invisible.
Roman calls it female, Dangleria a male
God. The titles of this god are sufficient
to indicate the supreme God of nature, and
they have astonishing analogies with the
primitive God of Asia and Europe, the
Basks, Pelasgians, Atlantes, Guanches &c*
The most common name was the first, in
Cuba Atabex. This and other great Gods
were not sculptured in idols. The Chil-
lians had similar names for the Supreme
2. Fact. This God was father or mo
ther of another great God dwelling in the
sun with a double name, variable in the
First Name. Second Name.
By Roman locahuna Guamaarocon.
By Dangleria locauna Guamaonocon.
In Cuba Yocahuna Guamaoxocoti.
In Jamaica Yocahuna .-..-.
In Boriquen lacana Guamanomocon.
By Oviedo lovana Guamamona.
Variations locavagharaa Guaraochyna.
HAYTTAK ANNALS. 167
The explication of these names is not
given ; but they are identic with the gods
of the Cantabrians, and Guanches of Ca
nary islands. The first appears to be the
JEHOVAH and YAO of the Orientals, and is
evidently the HUNAKU or Supreme God of
the Mayas. The second name means
Lord of the World (Gttama-ocon) and is
a title. (4)
3. Event. This last God made the
World, the Heavens Turei, and the Earth
before the terrestrial sun and moon ; also
the ZEMIS or angels, who are male and
female lesser gods, worshipped in idols, and
intercessors with the great gods. In the
dialects Zemes, Chemes, Chemis.
All the ancestors are since called Zemis:
their worship was spread through America,
under various names, and forms : as well
as in the east. They are the
Shemayim (Heavenly) of the Hebrews.
Shemsia of the Pehlavis of Persia.
Samana <$ Hamsa of the Hindus.
Shams of the Arabic.
Esmun, Saman of the old Irish.
Eshman (devil) of the Carthuls of Cau
Sumari of Thibet, Chuman of Tartary.
Camus, a synonym of Magi of Persia.
Shin of the Chinese.
Zamzumin ancient giants of Arabia.
Chamin tip Zaones of Egypt,
Chama of the Phrygians.
Chamina of the Etruscans.
168 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
Zcones $ Zanim of the Ammonians.
Zamonts (blest) of the Lybians.
Lemes, Zanes and Annas of the Pelas-
Chemin, Shemsho, Naemas and Zamiel
of Aram or Syria and Phenicia. Chema-
Zin, Kami and Kamona of Japan and
While in America we find the Chemim
of the Carib women,
Tezmin of the Mayas.
Inama of the Apalachis.
Manito of the Linapis.
Camayos of the Peruvians. Which are
all identic in meaning Angels, Spirits and
their idols. This name changes elsewhere
in sound : just like Enzel in Tentonic,
4 T hich has the import of El, Aones, and
Zemes, is root of our Angel now pro
nounced Endjel. This oriental connection
of ideas, names and worship, appears to
be evident. They are not less in Turei
heaven, Uran, Turan of the primitive
4th Event. Some of these ZEMIS became
bad beings, and devils Tuyra, who send
diseases, hurricanes (Furacan), earth
quakes and thunders to desolate the earth
The names of Tuyra for devil and evil
has analogies throughout the earth. The
most striking are
Out of America.
Zitura of Basks.
Guirati of Biscayans.
Vetura in Bali of Pallis.
Tororu of Nukahiva island.
Yarua of the Berber Atlantes.
Yurena of the Guanches Atlantes.
Daruj, P-ayri of Zend.
Tarug of Celts.
Tairl in Turkish.
Taliijri of Tahiti.
fara, Wara of Japan.
Tarada of the Papuas.
Uritiram Synonym of Shiva.
Teripis of Oscans.
Tyranos of Greeks.
Yares of the Tayronas the Cyclops or
forgers of Santa M arta.
Sura of Poyays.
Tziri of Poconchi.
Huraqui, Sura of Apalachi.
Twirl of the Yaquis.
Kiuras of the Powhatans.
Tarahu, of the Tarahumaras.
Prororu of Cumana, derived from Pre-
gonero another subsequent devil of Hayti.
By the change of R to L, we have the
Tulas and Atlantes of America. See To-
raguva of 10th Event.
5th Event. The good Zemis were ap
pointed to make the earth and men, and to
rule over both. Guabanzex, a female
170 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
Zemis, made the air and water, and be
came the goddess of the ocean and winds.
This will answer to the first period of
the earth creation, when the water was
above the land, and the Rkio of Moses
was divided. The name appears to mean
the windy. (5)
6th Event. The male Zemis JAIA (Khaya,
the earth) made the earth and islands ; he
is the Aion of Sanchoniation. Every land
and island is animated. The island of Hayti
was a great animal like a turtle ; the head
and mouth was in the east, the west end of
it was a long tail, called Quaca-iarimd
(country of the Vent). The caves were
the holes of the body, venerated and used
afterwards as temples and tombs.
This notion, and comparison of islands
with turtles, recalls to mind the primitive
turtle land of the Chinese, Hindus, Lina-
pis &/c. Jala or Kaya for land has affi
nities all over the world and is a primitive
*7th Event. JAIA afterwards had a son,
who was called Jaia-El, Higuera, or Hi-
buera earth-son gourd.
This first man like Adam is son of the
earth, and an EL or Angel, Elohim of the
orientals; it means in Haytian, son, off
spring, family and tribe. It will often recur
in subsequent history, in the singular for
the plural. The plurals were Eli, Hi,
gu&ili. Gua is only the article This or
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 171
8th Event. The sun and moon called
Boiniael and Maroio by Roman; but
Binthaitel and Marohu by Dangleria and
Ovieda, come out of the cave Jovovava:
they are Zemis and foes of mankind. A
cave with the same name was their temple
in Hayti. Dangleria calls it lovana-boina
The exact time of this appearance is
doubtful, and there appears to be two
blended events, one of cosmogony alluding
to the sun being long obscured by the pri
mitive misty atmosphere, another historical
alluding to the solar and lunar dynasties of
Asia or America. The meaning of Jovo
vava or Kovo-vava is cave of fathers, both
primitive names. The solar and lunar
names have many analogies elsewhere,
among which the chief are
Names of the Sun.
Oin, Oein of Arabs and Ethiopia.
Oboh, Baton, old Egyptian.
Baon, Oan of Assyrians.
Ian of the Etruscans.
Belen of the Gauls.
Bun of the Zend.
Abolion of the Pelasgians.
Abloin of the Thessalians.
Ntiele of the Illyrians.
Bian of the Ausonians.
Anactes of the Mysians.
Names of the Moon.
Yarho of the Syrians.
Aohri of the Tibus.
172 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
Warha of the Ethiopians.
Carara of the Etruscans.
Teoro of the Betoys, S. A.
Heriho of Canaan.
Humuri of Old Arabic.
Matuare of Carthul, Caucasus.
Maraca of Guaramis, S. A.
Marama of Polynesia.
Kamar in Maroco.
Kamaria in Pehlvi.
Crumara in Nubian.
Most of these synonyms and analogies
$re found in the most ancient languages :
to which may be added that in the ancient
Haikan language of Armenia, the sun and
moon were called Noah! and Morante^
names also of Noah and his wife.
9th Event. The female Zemis, Coatris-
quid makes the springs and streams to flow
over the earth, and became their goddess.
This is another period of oriental cosmo
gony, that of the irruption of subterranean
waters and rain, which in the bible is pos
terior to Adam. The name of the Zemis is
of doubtful meaning, probably Coatris-quia,
hollow-quite. Coa or Cua was the name
of ancient hollow temples all over America.
Quia is found in Quisqueia oldest name of
Hayti or the great (land) universal.
Wth Event. Taragava-el and Corocora
or EpUeguanita, two male Zemis of the
woods and hunters, made the trees and
beasts. This includes probably two events
anterior to the men, unless they be men,
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 173
The meanings of these Zemis which
might guide us, are quite doubtful. Ta-
raguva resembles Tayra and also 7\irei
heaven; but Epileguanita was probably
the ancient god of the Caracal or Beastly-
men, since it was represented by a beast
or quadruped ; while all the other Zemis
as men and women. Ili-guanita would
mean in Haytian children of the people.
Therefore I presume that these are per
sonifications of the ancient hunters, or men
of the woods with the beastly and savage
men of early times. Roman calls the se
cond Corocore, synonyme of Caracara.
Part II. Antidiluman History and Flood.
llth Event. JAIA-EL rebels against his
father JAIA and wants to kill him ; a war
fare, in which Jaia-El is killed by his father,
who puts his bones into a gourd. Higuera,
or Hibucra, and people the land of that
This refers to the fall of man and the
wars of the Titans. The name for bones
is omitted, it would perhaps afford another
clue. Many American nations venerate
and animate bones. Dangleria says, that
Jaia peopled all the islands of the sea with
Vlth Event. JAIA being childless marries
Itiba-Jatuvava from whom he has 4 twin
sons called Dimivan, who became after
wards Cara-cara-cols or the great Cara-
cols, the great beastly beings; but their
mother dies at their birth.
174 HAYTIAN AtfNALS.
Itiba means woman ancient and alludes
perhaps to Thibet, refuge, or land of Noah.
(/, is the article the). Jatuvava perhaps
Japhet-father, but in Aruac Kati-uiua
means the moon heavenly. The name of
Dimivan is remarkable, being identic with
the Demavends or antidiluvians of Persia,
called Daicand in the Zendavesta, the
Demoi or old people of the Pelasgians, the
Demons of many nations. The Caras and
Cols are found all over America and Asia.(8)
13th Event. AHIACAVO (grand father) or
Baia-manicoel an ancestor of the Dimi-
van, forms the nation of CON-EL, at Basa-
manaco, and invents agriculture, with the
art of making cakes and bread.
The Dimivan acknowledge him as grand
father of mankind. CON-EL is certainly a
personification, meaning the sons or Elohim
of CON, who is the primitive Lybian Her
cules RON or KHON ; and is found in
Peruvian history as the first legislator of
Peru. The XONS or CONES were the
oldest people of Spain and Italy, same as
Xdones of Greece. Their god was XON
or Konah. Basamanaco is inexplicable
unless it alludes to the primitive antidiluvian
Manaco or Manco of Peru. Ba is dwell
ing, Samana an island near Hayti.
\4th Event. The four brothers Dimivan
meeting a mute Conel, making bread, ask
him for some; but he only gives them in
stead Cogioba or Cohiba which is tobacco:
this happened at the door of Basamanaco.
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 175
This fable indicates an intercourse of the
Dimivans and the Conels which are pro
bably a branch of the Atlantes or Lybians,
I5th Event. This refusal of bread was
the cause of a quarrel and war, in which
Conel kills or destroys one of the brothers
or tribes of Dimivan Caracol, but a turtle
Hicotea came out of his body, or an island
thus called, as Hayti was. This Conel con
queror was Baia-mani-coel, whose name
means Father of food celestial; but Baya
is also the ocean.
This indicates a great war, and probably
alludes to that of the Atlantes. (9)
16th Event. The Dimivans, probably
in revenge, broke the gourd of JAIAEL
(Khayahel) ; but a flood of waters issue
from it and drowns the land.
This deluge is called Niquen : there is
no indication in Roman of the men who
were destroyed, nor who were saved and
how ; but in Cuba was found a more ample
tradition of the flood as follow.
17th Event. Three Behiques or priests
who come to Cuba later, taught them that
the flood had been general, had broken the
land ; and that a good man had been saved
in a big boat with his family. That many
animals were also in the boat, a vulture
and dove are mentioned.
Herrera and others relate this, but in dif
ferent words, and without native names.
Some have supposed this account made
out by the Spanish priests ; but it appears
176 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
to refer to a tradition brought by the Ol-
mecas or Mayas in Cuba, being very similar
to the Mexican accounts.
I8th Event. Another subsequent flood
although omitted by Roman, is alluded to
by others, Garcia says that Hayti and Cuba
were then cut asunder and separated from
Yucatan. Dangleria says that the islands
Lucayas that then joined to the great
islands, were divided by irruptions of the
sea. It is the second flood of Peleg, which
in the Antilles broke the islands by volcanic
explosions. It is impossible to say what
events of the next period, may belong to
the interval between the two floods ; but
probably some of them. All these antidi-
luvian events appear to belong to a different
country than the Antilles, which did not
even then exist, at least in their actual
state, and may properly be referred to the
island Atlantis or the eastern hemisphere.
It was at this last cataclysm that the Antil
les assumed their actual shape and number.
Part III. Ancient History.
19th Event. After the floods the men
dwelt in caves on the mountain Cauta in
the land of Caanau or Caunana or Cao-na.
The mountains of Cauta must have been
the refuge of men at one of the floods : they
answer probably to the Cuta of the Hindus,
name given to many rocky lands and capes
besides mountains. The Ceuta mountain
of Africa south of Gibraltar, was one of
them, also called Abyla from the Cabyks
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 177
or Nomadic Berbers. Dangleria states a
tradition that men were created on that
mountain. Cauta although unexplained
is identic with Icota turtle, Ca-uta land
raised. Caona means golden.
The land Caanau of Roman, Caunana
of Dangleria, has been mistaken for the
land of Canaan by some writers : others
deem it Florida. Both are wrong. The
Haytians did not come from North Ame
rica; but may have sent colonies there.
They came from the east, South America
and Africa, or the Atlantis. The name
means land of Noah ? (Caa-Nau, Cau-
Nana). Caunia was the ancient name of
Asia Minor and Caria, the first Carians
were Caunians, a Pelagian tribe which
expelled by the Leleges, settled the Gre
cian islands, and Lybia part of which was
called Caani. The Andkim of Syria
giants dwelt in Ca-anak. The Khaoni
were the ancestors of Epirians and Illy-
rians. Cauni was a mauritanian tribe.
%Qth Event. The sun and moon are two
great Zemis called Binthaitel (sun divine)
and his wife Marohu (moon), come out of
the cave lovana-boina (Jehovah-Solar),
and rule the world, establishing the solar
and lunar dynasties.
This historical event must be distin
guished from the 8th. This refers to the
solar dynasties of Asia and Africa. It
must be noticed that similar places were
often shown in Hayti, as the same names
178 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
had been applied by the subsequent settlers,
even when the event had happened else
where. In this case, these solar caves
were temples in Hayti, where the figures
of the sun and moon were worshipped, and
prayed to for rain ; but Herrera says they
had their hands bound, which indicates a
conquest. Pilgrims went to those caves,
from all parts of Hayti. It was in the land
of the king Mauziation-El (Roman) or
Machiunech (Dangleria) ; but whether
these were former dynasties and kings or
late rulers, is difficult to ascertain.
%Ist Event. Maroco-El (lunar son) called
Machocha-El by Dangleria, held the sway
over men, who were still in Cauta and Caa-
nau, and kept them confined to the caves.
This indicates a lunar dominion over
mankind somewhere, and a state of con
finement: Perhaps in South America; in
Peru caves are also the first dwellings of
2%d Event. The men were divided into
double tribes or two nations, the principal
or largest and of best men was called
Cazibagiaga R. Cazibaxagua D.
(Royal Xagua) and the smaller Amaia-
naba R. Amayauna D. (Mayas ?),
ruled by Cazics for kings.
We have here two nations well indicated.
The first the Giaga or Shaguas, indicate
the Lunar tribe, the Chia of the Muyzcas,
and other South American tribes Achaguas
of Oronoc, the Chaguays or Changas of
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 179
Peru, Agaches or Agaiz or Paraguay;
but above all the Cacfia or Xauxa antidi-
luvian people of Peru. While in the second
we trace again the Amazons or Atlantes,
one of their main African tribes being the
Amantes of Solin, another the Baniabas
of Ptolemy, both in Lybia. In America the
progeny is found in the Mayas of Yucatan,
the Maynas of East Peru, the Mamayant
of Brazil, the Mbayas of Chaco &c.
The important name of Cazic for kings
begins to appear : it is evidently oriental,
and its affinities will be shown in a note. (10)
It is akin also to Kachi sun, in the Eyeri
dialect: the Washil of the Nachez.
%3d Event. MACHOCHA-EL was set by
the sun to watch the caves r and many in
habitants of the caves were killed by the
sun, if they came out in the day time ; they
could only come out at night to seek for
This either alludes to the great heat of
the sun in Africa and the tropics, or to a
dependance of the Lunar or Cave men
upon the Solar men. Machocha has some
affinities in the South American tribes;
Machicuys of Tucumen, Machacalis of
Brazil, Chaehas of Perou, Chanchones of
Uth Event. Some men having dared to
come in the day time, were changed into
stones by the sun; (Ziba is stone): also
Machokael for allowing it.
This fable may allude to a war, between
180 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
the Zibas stony or strong men and the
solar tribes. These Zibas were probably
the Zipas or princes of the Muyzcas. In
Perou there is also a fable of men changed
to stones at the primitive city of Tiahua-
naco, which merely means a war and
change of diminion. The name of Ziba
for stone is primitive. See the Note for
25th Event. Another set of men, going
to the shores to fish, were changed into
Joboses (myrobolan or plumb trees) by the
This metamorphose is peculiar to these
fables : although the Mexicans called the
Olmecas, fruit-people or Zapotecas. The
analogies of Jobos or Kobos are found in
Coyba of Darien, Cuba or Coaiba, the
Mocobis of Chaco &c. Another war is
probably meant by this, and the Jobos are
a people. Have they any reference with
the Jubas of Mauritania? who formed a
divine and royal dynasty there. Juba was
also the Jove or God of the Lybians,
Several nations of Central and Mexican
America had trees for emblems.
26th Event. The dynasty of Giona or
Hi-Auna begins to rule over the men of
Caziba or royal caves in Cauta.
This family of rulers or Cazics became
famous afterwards as we shall see, as lead
ers of tribes to America. We can easily
perceive here the ancient Pelagian tribes
of Ionia and Aones. Hi-Auna means
IIAYTIAN ANNALS. 181
thc-Aones. It was this dynasty or people
that sent colonies to America: Oviedo
says this happened in the time of Hesper
12th king of Spain, about 750 years after
the flood, or 1G58 years B. C. He deems
the settlers Hesperians or Cantabrians.
The root is ONA solar name of Lybians.
27th Event. VAGONIANA a ruler of the
Hi-Auna, went fishing from the cave, and
became a bird or nightingale; who crossed
the sea, and settled the island Mathinino
(Martinico) with a people of women.
Dangleria. His wife in the sea gives him
two sons which became jewels Ziba and
Guanin marble and metal.
This is a positive voyage over the At
lantic. Whenever we meet tribes of birds,
in ancient history, they always mean tra
vellers and colonies, and often passage over
the sea in sailing boats, compared to birds.
The first ships of the Scandinavians and
Europeans seen in North America, were
called birds by the natives. V and B in
terchange in the Haytian language as in
Greek ; Va-gon-iana, thus means Father-
Solar-Iana. His people are called women,
because unwarlike fishermen, or the Ama
zon tribe. Martinico was the first island
settled by them : it bears the name of
Matinino in Roman, and was thus called
yet in 1492, Garcia mentions the 2 sons
and jewels. (12)
28/7i Event. GUAGU-GIONA king of Caziba,
sent Jadruvaba out of the caves, to collect
182 HAYTIAN ANNALF.
the holy herb Digo in order to purify and
wash the body ; but he was changed by the
sun into a singing bird Giahuba-Bogiael
(the-singer bird-divine), and never returns.
We have here a second voyage by sea in
a bird, and a contention with a solar people,
caused by a trading voyage to procure some
American commodity : Indigo probably
which is identic with Digo. Jadru-caba
or the father of Khadru, must be a new
colonist. Khadru has hardly any analo
gies in America ; but Giahuba in which
he was changed has some. It appears
analagous with the Yaoy and Shebaoy two
Aruac tribes of Guyana, and thus Khadru
might be the Aruac themselves ; same
nation with the Haytians once, as the lan
guages prove ; although extending to Tu-
cuman and Patagonia. The name of
Aruac or Aruagas was inexplicable : it
may refer to this origin, or to the Rocou
the red paint used by them. But Aruac
may also mean Aluac ; akin to the Labuyu
of the Caribs their vassals, and the Aluez
vassals of the Nachez nation. Could they
derive from the ALE angels of the east ;
here reduced to servitude by foes ?
29th Event. GUAGU-GIONA irritated that
Jadru-vaba does not return, leaves the
cave of Caziba in search of him, and went
with men and women to the island Matini-
no, where the women were left, while the
men went to the land of Guanin.
This is the third passage of the Atlantic,
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 183
unless that of Vagoniana only mentioned
by Dangleria arid Garcia be the same ; but
they are likely to be successive tribes of
lonas. That all the women should be left
in Martinico is a fable, meaning that the
weakest or fishing tribes settled there or in
the islands ; while the warriors went to the
American continent, called Guanin^ which
has several meanings, land of Guanas or
lizard men, or land of metals. It became
afterwards the name of a peculiar metal
formed by the natural or artificial amalgam
of 18 parts gold, 6 silver, and 8 copper :
and a tribe assumed the name. Guana or
Guanos was the name of a large nation of
South America; perhaps come from the
Guans of the Canary islands ; but slightly
related to the Aruacs by the languages:
yet perhaps akin : it was spread east of the
Andes, between the two tropics. (13)
30//i Event. The children were left be
hind, because afraid to cross, and were
crying after their mothers; but became
changed into Tona or opossums. Garcia
says into Toa or frogs.
There are no opossums in Hayti nor the
small islands, nor in Africa. But they are
plenty in South America, where the notion
must have sprung. This fable and meta
morphosis may imply a hidden meaning.
The opossums are the only animals bearing
their young in a pouch, as ships bear men.
Could not this indicate other ships without
sails, and thus no longer birds with wings ?
184 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
TON is a remarkable word, since it is the
root of Net-ton the Lybian neptunes or
navigators. The twin TUN are the holy
ancestors of the Chilians, Tona-ca (flesh
our) is the ancestor or Adam of some
Mexican nations. The frogs were the
emblem of the Muyzcas !
31 st Event. GUABONITO a woman follows
Guaga-Giona to the bigland of Guanin
by swimming. He is well pleased with it,
and calls her his own Biberozi (wife-lov
ing): but as she was diseased he puts her
apart in a Guanara, where she heals, and
he makes her queen.
A singular romantic fable, the disease of
the woman is stated to be the syphilis !
G-uabo-rfito means fruit or Guava pear of
man ! The allegory implies another colony
following Guaga, not by swimming ; but
with paddles or on rafts ; probably a part
of the lesser tribe of Amaiuna or Amazons,
so often called women in antiquity; although
a powerful African people. All the women
left in the islands might be of such a tribe,
and since become the Mayas of Yucatan,
Hayti &c., with the Manas or Manoas,
the Amazons of South America.
32d Event. ANACACUGIA (flower of Ca
cao) brother of this wife or ally of Guaga,
runs away from him on the back of a manati
or seal, and goes back to the women of
This implies a separation of tribes, one
returning to the islands, where they probably
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 185
forme 1 the Cairi nation. The seal used
for boats, is a third fable, found in Greece;
boats are thus compared to birds, opossums
and seals. Many American languages
animate boats and ships. This seal must
mean a Manati, or sea cow ; real seals not
being found in the Antilles. If the name
was Manati, it has affinities with theAma-
yuna or Ama-Zons tribe. Ma-ti-ni-no
is in Haytian great-mount-tlic-good, while
Hana-ti is moving mountain. Has not
Anacacu a reference to the Anakim of
Asia, the Cacus of Europe, and the Tarn-
anacu of South America ?
33d Event. Hi-AuNA father of Guago-
gtona comes with his son to the land of
Guanin, and being the grandfather of all
the tribes, they receive the names of Hi-
auna ; which is afterwards changed to
children of Guanin. Hin Gua-ili Gua-nin
(the-plural such-children such-Nin), and
lastly the whole united nation is called
The Aones came then also to America,
and there was a confederacy of the tribes.
Gtta-gu, Gua-go and Gim-ga, may be 3
spellings of a same name ; but they might
also be three successive and distinct tribes
of Giona. Gua-bonito in one instance is
made another lord or tribe, instead of a
wife of Guago.
31th Event. ALBEBORA and his son Al-
bebora-El) were Also Guanini lords or
Cazics, who came with the Giona tribe.
186 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
This indicates again another nation. The
name is remarkable, because it resembles
Albion and Bora, two primitive nations of
the north, which settled England and the
boreal regions, becoming the Hyper-Bo-
reans of later times. Perhaps these Boras
are identic with the Aboras and Aborts of
ancient Italy, the mountaineers since called
Abort-genes by the Greeks.
35th Event. Another Guaga-giona II. or
Guaba-giona is mentioned afterwards,
whose son became the Guanhii tribe.
Guaba means both the father and the
Gnava pear. The succession of these
Gionas is very obscure ; but many are
probably omitted, and the whole poetical
records allude to the most famous of the
dynasty or nation. Guanini implies the
36th Event. The settlement of the Gu-
aninis in Hayti was from Matinino and the
east ; being exiled from Matinino, they are
led by Camo who begins the kingdom of
Cabonao in Hayti; they settle on the fiver
Bahabotri, where they built their houses,
and afterwards the great temple of Camo-
tzia. They gave to the island the name of
Quisqueia or great universe ; but after
wards Hayti, meaning land rough or hilly.
This important event is best given with
those details by Dangleria : while Roman
appears to mix it with the settlement of Gu-
anin. Yet Quisqueia was more probably
IIAYTIAN ANXALS. 187
the first name given to South America,
rather than to Hayti : another name for
wliich was Bohio or habitations. Camo
or Giiamo means lord or master, Tzla is
temple. The exile of the Guaninis from
the islands, must allude to another revolu-
and perhaps invasion. This Camo,
probably the same as the Cami or
Coma of Cuba in later time, Comayagua
of Honduras ; which assimilate the first
civilized Ilaytians with the tribes of Central
America. It might have happened that
these Camos were Mayas and the ances
tors of the Mayo-riexcs. The history of
the Mayas of Otolum, and Central Ame
rica, will be connected with these annals
hereafter ; but much is left for conjecture.
37th Event. Other exiles of Matinino
settle at the island Cdblni now Turtle isl
and ; and near it on the north shore of
Hayti, from whence they spread through
the island, which is called Bouki or Boliio,
meaning full of towns.
Dangieria mentions this likewise. House
and town or habitation, are synonymous in
38th Event. They found some Cara
coles or Taracolas, crabs ! or beastly men,
dwelling in the island. The Guaninis
wanting women, took some Caracols beasts
for wives, and made them suitable women,
by washing them, and giving them to eat
the fruit Inriri CahumaL This was done
by a Vagoniana II.
188 HAYTAIN ANNALS.
These Caracols had then survived the
flood or come before the Guaninis, the name
of the fruit that made them women, if ex
plained, might elucidate this event ; hut
the signification was not given; another
version will suggest other important analo
gies. (14) ^
39th Event. These Caracols depriveW)f
their women, took other female beasts for
wives (another tribe) and from this union
most of the Haytians descended, becoming
Anaborias or vassals of the Guaninis.
Anaboria means flower or lizard of la
bor ! these might be descended from Albe-
bora. This name for bondsmen, boors or
laborers, was widely spread in America,
and has affinities all over the world, even
with the Latin labor. (15)
4Qth Event. These first inhabitants of
Hayti, fed on dates, bananas, cocos, fruits,
nuts, herbs, yams, roots, onions, mushrooms :
until taught the use of Cazabi or bread by
Boition, with maize, cotton, mandioc &c.
Another fact of Dangleria, very natural
indicating the tropical food of old times.
41st Event. Michetaiiri Guauana, was
the leader of the first colony to Coaibai
(death house) in the land of Soraia (setting
sun), and became the king of it. There
the people are called Goeiz (phantoms or
ghosts) and go about by night ; but are not
dead people whose name is Opia.
Coaibai is either Cuba or Coyba in Da-
rien, or both. It became the paradise of
HAYTIAN ANXALS. 180
the Haytians, placed in Cuba or further
west, and a place of delight. The names
and allusions are remarkable. They assi
milate to those of the Greeks &c. about
the fortunate islands of the west : those of
the Orientals and Hebrews about the island
Elisha, and the Sheol or place of souls, the
Hebrew Plutonic region. Soraya for set
ting sun, is identic with Surya of the Hin
dus : whence came Syria the W 7 est, and
even our word sorrow ; while Sol comes
from Sheol. Azil sun in Pelasgian, is akin
to Elisha whence our word Azylum ! Goeiz
in akin to ghost, Ghaib in Syrian, Coyocop
of the Nachez, Goz of the Vilelas. Opi
has affinities every where. Michetauri is
perhaps a synonym of Afacki-tuyra great
devil, Guauana is such-Auna. Perhaps
this fable alludes to an anterior event and
the passage to America of a former Hi-
42d Event. AUMATEX a great Cazic mar
ries the female Zemi Giwbanzex, goddess
of waters and wind, and she has two sons
Guataura and Pregonero, who become
It is impossible to say if this event be
longs to this time or to the cosmogony. I
presume it is historical, alluding to new
tribes, and perhaps foreign to Hayti. The
names are difficult to explain, nor is it
stated what these sons performed ; but
being sons of water and wind ; they must
have led colonies by sea elsewhere. They
190 IIAYTIAN ANNALS.
are perhaps the ancestors of the Guataios
and the Puruays ? (17)
43d Event. COROCORO the quadruped
Zemi of the Caracols? was the ancestor
of two lines of kings, Guamorete and Gua-
tabanex, who rule in Hayti. His temple
was in Sacaba, and his high-priest was
called Cavava-Niovava. Cave father and
This alludes to different tribes than the
Guaninis : Coro was a tribe in Cumana.
Perhaps this is another version of the
10th Event, or a proper indication of the
subsequent institutions of the Caracol na
tion, when more civilized, and become the
44th Event. A rrival in Hayti, Cuba &c.
of the first Bohito (old man), a priest and
legislator, called Boition by Dangleria,
meaning both Priest-solar arid Old Ion : he
introduces agriculture and the use of bread,
divides the nation into 3 castes, Tainos, or
nobles, Bohitos or priests, Anaborias or
vassals, and these last into tillers, hunters
and fishermen. He becomes pontif, settles
the religion; establishing mysteries and
oracles, the worship of Zemis, and many
other institutions, holydays, festivals, reli
gious dances, schools &c., declaring the
land common to all, like the sun and water.
There are at least 3 Bohitos, that came
to Hayti and Cuba, and civilized the peo
ple; but it is difficult to distinguish the
deeds of each. They were probably priests
IIAYTIAN ANNALS. 191
leading more civilized colonies from the
east or from America. Their name which
is variously spelt or varies in dialects was
also Buhuti, Boitio, Bauti, Buhui, Bo-
yeto &/c., is akin to the Boyez, Poyes,
Plazcs, Payes of South America, used by
the Aruacs, Guaranis and Carib tribes,
P laches of Tamanacs, Bauti of Dabaiba,
Papas of Central America, Bochlca of
Muyzcas ; but the names of priests all over
ancient eastern nations, have still more
analogies (See the Note 18.) and there
fore they came from the east. The civili
zation and religion introduced or improved
by them is also oriental ; it was more ad
vanced than we are aware ; since they had
ample fields and orchards, roads and canals,
schools in which they taught history, reli
gion, medicine and useful arts. Of their
astronomy nothing has been preserved, nor
of their hieroglyphs.
45th Event. Bohito II. or Buhui-tihu
(old eminent) comes and improves still fur
ther the rites &c., becoming high-priest.
He introduces medicines, charms, the use
of cotton and cloth, burning of bodies in
stead of mummies as formerly, the holy
herbs Gneyo and Zochen <$.
This is all what can be collected on this
second law-giver, and he is even blended
with the next, except by name.
46th Event. Bohito III. or Balo-habao
(sea-lyre) comes next, introducing music,
sacred instruments called after him, and
192 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
probably the rites of the triple named god
of the Hindu and Mayan trimurti : Bugia,
Aiba and Bradama: who became the
Zemi of war, or perhaps led to a war.
This god with three names is evidently
Vishnu, Shiba and Brama of India : found
in Yucatan as Izona, Echtiah and Bacab.
See my dissertation in Atlantic Journal, on
similar names of triple God all over Ame
rica and the east. It does not follow that
this worship came direct from India ; but
it might come through the Pelagians, who
had it as Bram, Amen and Vix, inverted
among the x\usonians, Oscans. The same
about a god creator preserver and destroyer
was prevalent in Asia, Iran, Thibet, Syria,
Egypt, Greece. Etruria, and even the Ca
nary islands. The Mayoriex came probably
with Bohito III.
43th Event. Happy state of this civilized
people, hardly knowing war, passing the
time in festivals, dancing, singing and mak
ing love : whence called the Fortunate isl
ands, by the navigators that happened to go
so far. They dwelt in wooden houses and
had towns of 1000 houses. Herrera.
This period is indicated by twenty au
thentic sources of ancient history, and the
ancient traditions of Europe about the
happy land of the west, Elisha or Elysium,
Hesperides, Cocana of the Spaniards &c.:
besides the happy state in which Hayti
was found. See the account of the ancient
notions and communications with America,
HAYTIAN AXNALS. 193
and the great Atlantis : the most explicit is
found in Diadorus Siculus, as follows.
48th Event. The Phenicians driven by
a storm, while going from Gades to Africa,
discover the large island ATLANTIS, many
days in the ocean west of Lybia. It was
very fruitful, with mountains, large plains
and navigable rivers; with many woods
and fruits, fine valleys, plenty of wild beasts
and fish. The air is mild and healthful ;
it is a residence fit for gods : the inhabitants
are a strong and healthful people ; they
have many towns, with stately buildings,
houses of pleasures, gardens, orchards &c.
Diod. Book V.
The translators of Diodorus have blun
dered so far as to deem this island Madeira
or the Canaries ; which are small islands,
without streams, and the first without inha
bitants. It can only apply to Hayti, or
even the continent of South America.
49/7z Event. A black people came to
Hayti from the south or south-east, who
had darts of Guanin metal, and were called
the Black Guaninis.
This tradition preserved by Herrera,
Garcia and Charlevoix, indicates a colony
of Negroes or men painting black, from
South America. They might be the black
Negroes of Quarequa mentioned by Dan-
gleria, or some other American Negro
nation, of wh .ch thsre are many. See my
account of ancient Black Nations of Ame
rica. Dangleria mentions two wild tribe?
194 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
of savages in Hayti towards 1500, one
speechless ! (which means they spoke a
different language) probably a remain of
the Caracols, another swift dwelling in
caves, quite apart, seen in 1514 in Zauana
50th Event. Navigations of the Haytians
and Cubans, settlements of the Lucayas isl
ands, Jamaica, and probably some parts of
Florida : mutual trade with Cuba and the
These colonial and trading voyages must
have begun long before and have been con
tinual. Columbus met individuals in Cuba
who had visited Hayti, Jamaica and Ya-
maya, the Maya land or Yucatan. Yucayas
or Lucayans knew Cuba, Hayti and Flori
da, which was called Catttio says Fulgar,
quoted by Cardenas, who deems the Antilles
peopled from hence, blending it with Cauta
the original seat of the Haytians. South
America was once called Guanin, after
wards Caribana w r hen it was overspread
by the Carib tribes. The Nachez appear
to have come from Cuba, The Cumanas
knew Hayti and called it Atsi.
5Ist Event. The Canibas (whence our
Canibals) or the Caribas, (whence our
Caraibes), a savage people, often feeding
on human flesh, begin to spread to Guyana
and South America; becoming bold navi
gators also, they send war parties and
colonies to the peaceful islands of the An
tilles, and even to Florida.
HAYTIAN AXXALS. 195
The Caribas evidently descended from
the Galibis, and other akin nations of South
America, did not originate in North Ame
rica, as supposed by Bridgstock and a few
others. Laborde who spent 20 years with
them, and knew well their language, has
published some of their traditions in 1704.
Lon-quo was their original god, who made
Racumon their chief or leader to America,
who leads there the tribes of snakes, men,
Cabatos-trees and birds. The true name
of the nation was Call, those of the main
were Cali-nago or Calibis, of the islands
Cali-ponam. Rochefort &/c. See my
5%d Event. The Calibis of Guyana after
long wars with Alouague the kings of the
Aruacas, send the general Timani to
conquer the Aruacas Islanders, Cahiris,
Eyeris fyc. who leads the tribe of Labou-
yous (vassals) and conquer several islands,
killing the men and keeping the women.
The period of this invasion is unknown ;
those who bring the Caribs from North
America, make it much later of course ;
but it is likely to be an old event : although
several invasions are probably meant and
blended. The Timanis and Labouyous
must have effected this. They adopted
many customs and partly the religion of
the conquered women. The following tra
dition belongs probably to the conquered
196 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
53d Event. Once when living wretched
and on the spontaneous fruits of the earth,
Oubek-Eyeri (heaven man) a holy man
drest all in white cotton, comes from hea
ven (Qubek above). He first appears to
a desolate old man Boyez, and teach him
to build houses, to cultivate mandioc and
make bread of it &c.
This must have been a priest or bohito
of Hayti, who tried to civilize the Caribs :
unless it refers to anterior traditions. He
taught religion also, that good men would
go after death to the happy islands of the
west, and become Chemin or Icheiri (Ze-
mis ; while bad men should become Oume-
kcua wanderers at sea, and Mabouyas
54& Event. The Caribas in search of
these fortunate islands go to Hayti and
Cuba ; but are repulsed, and settle in Flo
rida , where they extended inland, becom
ing the tribes of Cofachi, Matica and
Amana. They dwell there a long while
often at war with the Apalachis, who con
quer them and incorporate at last.
See Brigstock for this fact, and the wars
with the Apalachis ; the details belong to
the history of North America and the na
tions of Florida.
55th Event. Some expelled Caribs hear
ing by traders of Zigateo, steal some canos
and run away to this island, one of the
Lucayas ; well received ; but sent to Ayay
(Santa Cruz) desert island, where they
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 197
settle and increase. This happened to
wards 1150 of our era.
This positive fact begins the certain
chronology of the Antilles ; but Brigstock
is quite wrong in deeming these fugitives,
the ancestors of all the Carib and Galibis
tribes as far as Brazil.
56tk Event. Civil wars in Hayti, attempt
of some kings to become independent from
the Bohitos government. The Cazic
Gaamaretus despise his god or Zemi Co-
rochotum, for which he is overcome in
battle and his palace burnt. Dangleria.
This indicates probably a revolution, and
attempt to overthrow the ancient religion,
perhaps before 1150.
57th Event. CAZI-BAQUEL restores peace,
and the worship of the great God Jocava-
ghama, with the Zemi Tarugavael found
in the woods. Meantime the god JOCAVA
prophecies by an oracle that the Magua-
cochios (great people clothed)would come,
with fire and thunder to destroy or enslave
the rebellious Haytians. This was under
stood to apply to the Caribs, and Spaniards
58th Event. This great king BAQUEL,
begins a dynasty, and has many successors
Gamanacoel, Guarionel, Guayaronel^
Guavanenechin, Guavavo-conel, Cara-
marex, Guaramatex <$*c., who are the
chief kings of Hayti. Guarionex was his
successor when the Spaniards came.
The ancestors of Guarionex had been
198 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
kings or cazics from time immemorial in
the great kingdom and valley of Maguana,
180 miles long and 30 broad, running from
east to west ; having from east to west the
provinces Canobocoa, Hubabo, Cayaba,
Maricoa, Bainoa. The river Bahuan runs
through it, which is probably the same as
Bahaboni, where settled the Guianims.
They appear to have been at the head of
the feodal system of Cazics and Tainos
established in Hayti. All the other kings
bearing them allegiance : and their dialect
was the court language.
59th Event. The island becomes divided
into 5 principal kingdoms, with many pro
vinces each having a Cazic. They were
1. Caizimu in the east with 11 provinces,
Higuey was the first of them, 2. Bainoa
in the centre, the largest of all, belonging
to the Baquel dynasty, with 24 provinces,
Maguana being the first of them, 3. Gu-
acarima, the west end, with 12 provinces,
Xaragua being the main, 4. Hubaba, a
small kingdom with 3 provinces in the
south mountains, 5. Cotoy or Cayabo in
the mountains of the north, held by the
Mayoriex people, with 7 provinces, and
the mountains Zibao.
Dangleria gives the names of all these
provinces, but he has omitted the kingdom
of Marten in the north-west, he makes it
only a province of Bainoa. Laet, Charle-
voix and Munoz have given maps of old
Hajti, with the situations of many, the
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 199
rivers, towns, islands, mountains, lakes &c.;
gee my Ancient Geography of the Antilles.
6Qth Event. Meantime Cuba was also
divided into 7 kingdoms, 1. Mayzi or Maiti
opposite Hayti, 2. Bayamo west of it, 3.
Cuetjba in the centre, whence the name of
Cuba, probably the head kingdom, 4. Ca-
maycgua or Camaguey inhabited by a
different people, famous tribe, probably
Camay a g uas of Horduras, or Olmecas,
5. Xagva near the middle, 6. Macaca in
the south opposite Jamaica, 7. Hanigu-
anica at the west end where are the high
mountains Ultima. t
61st Event. The island of Jamaica was
divided in two kingdoms. Boriquen also
Buchena or Burichina (D) now Porto-Rico,
formed one, but had 20 Cazics in as many
valleys, the high mountains of Guayamo
being desert. The Kucaijas (white isl
ands) now Bahama, were numberless, the
largest being Amana, Zigateo, Bahama,
Bimini, Sumana, Yuma, Guanahani, Sao-
moto, Abaco &c. The Cazics were much
respected there, being also Bohitos or Be-
hiques (priests) judges and stewards. La
bor was in common and the daily food given
from the public stores. Some islands were
at war ; but only used sticks in their quarrels.
Yet all the islands formed a single kingdom,
the great Cazic resided at Saomoto.
&2d Event. The Caribas of Ayay having
multiplied, spread again over the eastern
islands: they are repulsed in Boriquen;
200 IIAYTIAN ANNALS.
but meeting their ancient tribes in Curu-
cueria now Guadeloupe : it becomes their
chief island : whence they send war parties
to 1000 miles off, even to the continent ;
and occupy Galana now Marigalante,
Matinino or Madinino now Martinique,
Liamaca now Antigua, Liamuiga St.
Christopher, Bayaraco St. Vincent, Be-
quia Grenada &,c. called collectively Cali-
aqiui the islands of the Calibis.
63d Event. They molest the shores of
Boriquen, where they are always repulsed,
but often steal men and children to eat
6th Event. They assail the shores of
Hayti, where they are much feared ; sig
nals by smoke are made when they appear.
In Higuey and Caizimu, eastern regions of
the island, the Haytians become warlike to
defend themselves, and use poisoned arrows
as they did. Elsewhere the Haytians used
only darts, lances and macanas, peculiar
65th Event. The Caribs went as far as
the shores of Cuba, and desolated the south
shores : the Cubans removing their towns
inland. They were called Canibas and
Canimas : and succeed in forming a settle
ment at Baracoa to the south-east.
66th Event. They were repulsed in their
attempt against the \varlike Jamaicans who
used arrows ; they do not appear to have
molested the Yucayans, owing to their for
mer alliance and gift af the island Ayay.
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 201
These events are chiefly collected from
Columbus own account, and personal nar
ratives of his travels, with other retrospec
tive hints by the Spanish writers. They
will also afford the notices of the subsequent
67th Event. The population of all the
Tainos in the Antilles was at least two
millions; 1,200,000 in Hayti; 600,000 in
Cuba; 100,000 in Boriquen; 60,000 in
Jamaica ; 40,000 in the Yucayas ; besides
the unknown Carib population.
This is the least calculation, at the Spa
nish arrival: others have swelled it to 6
millions, including all the West Indies.
Las-Casas states that the Lucayas had
500,000, Jamaica and Boriquen 600,000.
68th Event. The domestic animals of
these islands, were among beasts, Alco
dogs, gochi-dogs, agutis, cavias, pecari
hogs and manatis : turtles and guanas
among reptiles : parrots, doves, partridges,
fowls, ducks and red cranes among birds :
remoras among fishes ; and even cucuyos
or fire flies used for lamps among insects.
Such were found either in one or all
the islands ; which were not therefore des
titute of domestic animals, as commonly
believed. Columbus found tame fowls at
Cuba in 1492; which were probably the
69th Event. Beroica was king of Ja
maica (about the year 1420) he began a
dynasty ; his two successors were Bern-
202 HAYTIAN ANNALS.
beroica and Abcm-beroica, meaning Be-
roica II., Beroica III.
Garcia states this fact ; but in 1503
Columbus found Ameyro Cazic of the east,
and Huarco of the west of Jamaica.
70th Event. The island Puta or Cahiri
now Trinidad at the furthest east end of
the Antilles was still inhabited by several
Aruac tribes, Cahiris, Yaoy &c. which
resisted the inroads of their constant foes
the Galibis and Caribas.
71st Event. Between 1450 and 1480
Guaramatex was the greatest king and
Cazic of Hayti, in Bainoa and Maguana.
7M Event. Cayacoa was king of Caizimu
and Higuey in the east from about 1460 to
1494 when he died.
73d Event. About 1470 some Caribs
settle in Samana, the east peninsula of
Hayti ; and two valiant brothers Caonabo
and Manicatex, form themselves a small
kingdom inland near to the Mayoriex na
tion, Mayo-banex their king admits them
as allies. Caonabo conquers 3 provinces,
Dahabon, Zibaho and Manababo. He was
so much esteemed for his valor, that Ana-
coana the Venus of Hayti, sister of the
king of Xaragua, becomes his wife soon
74dh Event. About 1475, Behechio is
kings of Guacarima in the west, till 1500.
His capital was Xaragua. He became a
conqueror of several provinces, as far as
Neyba and Ozama rivers. He had 32 vas-
HAYTIAN ANNALS. 203
sal Cazics, and 30 wives, his favorite queen
Dangleria calls him Beuchicus Anaca-
choa, and says that as usual with great
kings, he received many titles, being called
Shining Copper, Bright Highness, and
Rich Flood. These titles were really
I uicigua Iwbitt Heaven-like ot Vt-llow Copper.
Siarei-huibo Star-briulit Higlme>s.
Jhtyh-ziuevufn Wealthy in Stteauus.
75th Event. In 1480 Guarionex succeeds
Guaramatex as the greatest king of Hayti.
16th Event. In 1486 the Cubans send a
colony to Florida, in search of a river and
spring restoring to youth; they visit the
Pola islands, now Martyrs or Florida keys,
the Colas nation of South Florida, and
settle the town of Abaiba near the cape of
Florida. Herrera. (21)
This proves a previous trade and know
ledge of Florida. The Colas are perhaps
descendants of the ancient Cara-CWs of
Hayti: they dwelt in Florida till 1760,
when they removed to Cuba.
Hth Event* In 1490 and previous to it,
war in Cuba between the kingdom of Cuba
or Colba, and Cavilla king of the Cami
nation, in the country of Bafan, whose
capital was Fava. Columbus Narrative.
Columbus heard of this war in 1492.
The Cami are the same as the Cama-
yegua, the foreign
NOTES TO CHAPTER vi.
1. The account of these strangers in
Hayti is very slender and confused, some
writers deem them the ancestors of all the
Caribs; yet they acknowledge Caonabo
as a late comer. Mayo-banex name of
their last king means Maya-head in the
Maya language. They must have been an
ancient colony or remain of the Mayas,
since they had already three dialects. All
strangers were called Caribs at last by the
Haytians, whence the blunder.
2. Traces of 44 distinct nations or tribes
are found in the ancient history of the
Antilles, (see last note) which are the an
cestors of all the American nations of east
ern origin by the Atlantic ocean.
3. These titles of the Supreme God might
furnish many pages of compared analogies.
Mamona is identic with the Mammon of
Africa and Asia. Liella has analogies
with all the EL or suns, gods and lords of
the east. Atabcira is identic with Ata-
byriiis the Jove of the Phrygians and
Pelasgians : The meaning Unic-being has
o O c5
analogies in Ata-belra all over the world.
At a is one or first in many languages.
Compare Atmon of Egypt, Baracata or
Paraxacta the nature or mother of Bra-
ma of the Hindus. Mamona with Vima-
na eternal god of the Jains, the Manilas
of North America. Ate was god in Thra-
cian, Ata in Brazil, Etna and Heyla in
Polynesia. The names of God in the
Cantabrian and Oscan dialects is Ian,
Ion, Jaana, Jain, Janieva, Janugoieva
fyc. similar to Jemao, Jocana arid Hiauna
4. Gua-ma-o-con was such-great-of-
world, in the early monosyllabic language
of the Antilles. Compare with Con-el, and
the gods of the Atlantes, Guanches &c.
5. Compare the following words for winds
Band old Arabic.
Watem, Vato Zend.
Bentus old Latin.
Vent us Latin.
6. It was Jala, Khaya, Cayo, Hay in
the dialects and it is pure Greek and Egyp
tian. Compare Aya, Ai, Eta, la, Gaya,
in the Pelasgic dialects, since become Aya,
Yaia, Gea in Greek.
Kay Deri of Iran.
Ca, Aion Phenician.
Aya old Irish.
Ayate, Gays Ausonian and Oscan.
In America numerous analogies are tound,
Aya Betoy, A in Lule, Catun Tzuluki,
Acuti Moxos &c.
7. EL for son was primitive Haytian
and synonymous with tribe, children, family,
divine or son of God as in Asia. In the
dialects Rabu, Rahen, Muru tyc. meant
Son. Compare Hi trihe in Persian, Zitl
man in Circassian, Leh Osset, Lez Lezghi.
Lele in Pelasgian, UL in Turan, now Oglu
in Turk Olgos Eolian, Vulgns Latin,
Cliuli in Carthulan, Oleos, Laos in Greek,
Eleuth in Mongol, Chula old Spanish, Ala
Copt, Bail Etruscan, Cobayl Berber, Haial
in D. Shiluh, JJlu Afgan, Eli Hungarian,
Filius and fam-ilia Latin &c. Even our
words Fellow, Child and Folks derive
from this ancient source, the oriental EL,
IL, OL. In America we find it in the
OL-mecas, Chols &c. Olo in Vilela,
Yoalc Abipon, ELES Mexican &c.
8. The Cols are perhaps the Chols, Olme-
cas, Colas of Florida, Collas of Peru &c.
The Caras may be the ancient Caribs, or
the Guaranis, the Caras of Peru, the Co
ras of Mexico &c.; compare with the an
cient Carians and many other primitive
9. Although we do not meet in Hayti
the Greek name of Atlantis, we have so
many allusions to the devils Tar as, and
Amazons Amayuna, that we can connect
these traditions with the Greek accounts.
The ancestors of the Haytians if Pela
gians were foes and vassals of the Atlantes ;
but allies of the Amazons.
10. Compare Cazic with the following
names for king :
Ach Egypt and Etruscan.
Vasll of Greeks.
Kasek in Sitka.
Cazi in Iran.
Sheik in Arabic.
Zic Iberians and Sicules.
Acalic, Agazi Berber.
Cazil Mindanao island.
Cazls Socotora island.
Izcan of Haikans.
Izca, Kan of Turans.
Casts of Syrians.
Acachi of Totonacas.
Wachil of Nachez.
Zac of Muyzcas.
Cathi of Pinindas.
Ahatic of Huaztecas.
Inca of Peruvians.
Chiaca of Coras.
Cuchi of Puncays.
Kiuska of Tzulukis.
11. Compare Ziba with the following
names for stone :
Hiban in Berber.
Uben in Hebrew.
Aben in Syriac.
Siwa Nukahiva island.
Ripa, Rupes in Latin.
Bahiba old Arabic.
It is in America, Siba in Cahiri, Tabu
in Yaoy ; Saba, Tebu, Tobu in Galibi dia
lects, Ttishub in Huasteca, Tepe in Mexi
can, Tzacapu in Talasca &c.
12. Although Matinino was one of the
names of Martinico, it may have been given
afterwards, and there may have been an
other land of that name, perhaps the Atlantis
Garcia gives Matalino as a synonym,
Ma means great, and thus it would by the
great TALINO, the real great Atalantis.
The conjecture is plausible ; but the name
was afterwards transferred to South, Ame
rica. If the real African Atlantis is meant,
the event must be before the last flood.
13. This metal Guanin is the Orichalc
of the ancient Greeks ; which has so much
puzzled the learned, being wrongly deemed
Platina, which would have been infusible.
It was the production of Atlantis !
14. But Garcia gives a different version
of this fable, he sa)s that the men being in
want of women sent 4 Caracols (their vas
sals?) to catch wives, who were like ants
on trees ; but slippery like eels : yet some
being caught became the wives of the
Guaninis. Ants were called Comekhon
in Haytian, and thus we have another tribe
akin to the Comaguas, Camay aguas tyc.
who were previous settlers of Hayti, and
descendants of Kon! the Klions of Lybia?
But it is strange that we find here the
Myrmidons of Grecian fable ! and many
affinities in the name of that tribe of ants.
Mur-mekon in Pelagian and Greek, Ume-
Jean in Thracian,jFor/mca in Latin, Camot
in Bali, Mohur in Iran &c., while in Ame
rica Co in a gen of Uraba, Camaxen of the
Talascas and Opatas. All referring per
haps to the ancient people of Ants; the
Pismires of Gothic tribes; a people of
dwarfs or weakness, akin to Pygmies and
Troglodytes ! thus traced also to America.
15. Compare with Anaboria or Nabor-
itas (working men) the following names
lor vassals and laborers Ndboriti in
Coyba, Labuyu of Caribs, Anaconas of
Peru and Muyzcas, Naboria of Mayas
and in the east.
Tabara in Turan.
Burutis in Ausonian.
Aboricin, Abeirgon Pelagic.
Boor, Bura Frisic. >
Ambactos in Gaul.
Manahunis in Tahiti.
Canabas, Knave Gothic.
P arias India.
16. It is remarkable that the primitive
notions of the Haytians about ghosts <fcc.
prevail yet among the Negroes of the An
tilles. The Obiah or sortilege, and Biqrin
ghosts, of Jamaica &,c., appear to have
survived. If introduced lately by the Afri
can Negroes ; it is strange they should be
similar to the Haytiari names of old.
17. The two brothers became gods of
good and evil, as their names indicate
Gua-tauva implies suck goodness : while
Pregonero is the devil of Cumana, under
the names of Proruru or Progurp.
18. These priests drest in white as in
Central America, and the Druids; are
primitive Lybian or Druidic priests and
, Pelagic Bramins. Their name is found in
Hubantes in Pelagic.
Faybo of the Guanches.
> Vatcs Ausonian and Gaul.
Aobu in Aramic.
Bedo old French.
Phonto in Egypt.
Purohito in Sanscrit.
Sudan in Pelvi.
Budha of Budhists.
Heotes Sicanian &c.
19. The Caribs went nearly naked ; when
the Spaniards came with clothes and guns
the prophecy was explained. Cochio for
dress and mantle has affinities with many
ancient languages, Gonachen in Iran,
Ahico of Guanches, Poncho of Peru and
Chili, Cachaca of Gauls, Cochaya of Sla
vonians, Cota in Celtic &c.: whence our
20. This is the most plausible account
of Caonabo ; but he perhaps was a Maya
and not a Carib : his name is no\ Carib,
but Haytian, meaning gold of the house.
Anacaona would hardly have married a
Carib? I have attempted to put probable
dates to these retrospective events, loosely
mentioned by Dangleria and the Spanish
21. The intercourse between Cuba, Flo
rida and the Lucayas was frequent. Dan
gleria says the Lucayas were a happy
people, with beautiful women, for whose
sake many Cubans and Floridans came to
22. It will be proper to recapitulate here
the ancient nations and tribes of the An
tilles, mentioned in these traditions and
annals; adding to each some well-known
modern nations of the continent, bearing
nearly the same name, and most probably
descended from them : unless it is preferred
to consider them as ancestors rather than
posterity, a very improbable fact. Mean
time we acquire thereby a new clue to
American annals and ethnology: since
nearly all the nations of America may be
connected with those by other links of
languages, traditions &c.
1. Zemisor Chemes, Compare Zemis and
Zemayos of Chaco and Chimus of Peru.
2. Tuyras or Taras, Compare Tarascas
and Tarahumara of Mexico, Taricas and
Talas of Tucuman, Atures of Oronoc &c.
3. GuabanZ) Compare Abays and Abi-
pons of Chaco?
4. Khayas, Compare Cayubas and Khak-
has of Peru.
5. Higueras or Hibueras, Compare Gu-
aranis, they called man Ibl, the Borias &c.
6. Boinis, Bohanes of Charcas, and
names of priests in South America.
7. Marohus or Mar ocas, Muras of Bra
zil, Aymaras of Peru, Maronios of Charcas.
8. Corocores, Coretus of Brazil, Coras
of Peru, Coros of Cumana, Coras of Mexico.
9. Coles, probably same as Cores, Colas
of Florida, Collas of Peru, Chols of Central
America, Cholas of South America.
10. Caracara again same, Caras, Caris,
Carios of Guaranis and Peru, perhaps also
11. Manicos or Manacos, the great
Nacos J^Ianicas or Manoas, Maynas of
Peru, Nacos of Comayagua.
12. Icotas or Hicotcas, Cotos Carib
13. Cnutas appear same as I-cota /
and Hi arc articles, Cotos and Cotas tribes
of Cumana and Oronoc.
14. Caanau or Caonas, Cagnas, Canaris
15. Glagau or Xaguas, Changas of Peru,
Achaguas of Guyana.
16. Amayunas, Mayoriexes of Hayti,
Mayas of Yucatan, Mbayas of Chaco.
17. Machocha, Machicuis of Charcas,
Chunchos of Peru.
18. Zibas, Zipas of Muyzcas, Shibaois
19. Khoboses, Coropos of Brazil, Coybas
of Darien, Mocobis of Chaco.
20. Gionas or Annas, Yana-conas of
21. Kadrus, Aruacs of Guyana.
22. Giahubas, Yaoys, Shiahubas and
Yahus of Guyana.
23. GuaniniS) Guanas all over South
24. Tonas, Atun-collas of Peru, Tuncas
of Popayan, Tun of Chili.
25. Anacac or Manati, Tamanacus of
26. Boras, Anaborias of S. America.
Boroas of Chili.
27. Comos, Comis or Come-Khon, Co-
mayaguas of Honduras, Comagr e of Darien,
Aculma of Mexico.
28. Goeiz, Goyaz of Brazil, Guyanas of
29. Aumatex, Yumas, Yameos of Peru,
Amatalas of Moxos.
30. Guatauvas, Guatayos or Aruac
31. Moretes, Muretes of Moxos ? Muras
32. Caribas, Canibas, Canimas, The
Calibis or Caribs.
33. Timanis, Timanas of Chaco, Ta-
manacs and Tarrccas of Oronoc.
34. Labouyous, Abuyas and Abayes
synonym of M bay as.
35. Cahiris Caris of South America.
36. Eyeris, Yaros of Parana.
37. Toas, Taos of Tucuman, and of New
38. Oumekwas, Omaguas, Humayons of
39. Mabuyas, Abuyas, Poyas, Poyay of
North and South America.
40. Cofachis. Cofachis or Cowetas of
North America ?
41. ApalachiS) Apalaches, Yamasis of
42. Mayoriex or Ziguayos, Mayas,
Guayos of Chaco.
43. Cons, Chons and Yana-Conas of
Peru, Conos of Chaco, Comvos and Cona-
mas of South America.
44. jSls or Mi (children), Eles and Ols
of Mexico, Yoales or Vilelas and Lules or
Pele of Chaco.
Thus, how gratuitous was the common
opinion that only one nation filled the An
tilles. Meantime we find nowhere in these
annals that name of Antilia, which in their
language would have been Anti-ill sons of
Antes, or Ana-ti-ili flower-high-children.
It may be a Lybian name like Atlantes, both
referring to the Antis or Anteus, the early
inhabitants of North Africa, and of Peru.
IIAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 215
THE HAYTIAX OR TAIXO LAXGUAGE res
tored, with fragments of the dialects of
Cuba, Jamaica, Lucaijas, Boriquen,
Eyeri, Cain, Araguas. Grammar,
roots, and comparative Vocabularies.
At an early period I endeavored to col
lect all the scattered fragments of this lan
guage, in order to elucidate and support
the historical traditions. This labour con
cluded in 1828, has given very important
results, whi h shall now be explained. At
the time of the Spanish discovery and con
quest, many Spaniards spoke that language;
many slaves were sent to Spain ; but phi
lology was not then attended to. Therefore
we have no dictionary nor grammar of this
language. Meantime the very nation has
disappeared, destroyed by Spanish cruelty.
However, nearly all the early travellers
and writers on the West Indies have pre
served by chance, some words of it. Co
lumbus himself mentions some of them in
his original journal. Roman and Dangleria
explain many of the quoted words. Others
are scattered in Acosta, Gomara, Oviedo,
Garcia, Diaz, Las-Casas &c.; which had
never been all collected even by Vater nor
Edwards. Gili alone undertook to give a
long list of Hay tian words ; but three-fourths
216 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
of them are geographical or historical names
unexplained and unavailable.
I have used, compared and brought to
gether all these loose materials, and thus
succeeded in restoring about 231 words of
this language, a list ample enough for all
historical purposes. This contains besides
50 words of the Eyeri and eastern dialects,
with 38 of the Cuban or western dialects,
useful to show the variations of dialects.
We know that from Bahama to Cuba,
Boriquen to Jamaica, a same language
was spoken in various slight dialects, but
understood by all: Columbus himself says so.
But this language, which had also partly
spread in Florida, and in South America,
has the appearance of being a mixt speech.
This appears from the many synonyms, the
deviations of dialects, and the double forms,
or relative position of words. In the small
eastern islands the Eyeris or Cab res had
been destroyed by theCaribs,who preserved
the women, and these preserved their own
language, mixt with some Carib words and
taught it to their daughters ; so as to pro
duce a double language, that of the women
being quite peculiar. This singular fact
well authenticated, will enable us to presume
a similar conquest and custom, wherever
we shall meet in America, with a peculiar
The many nations or tribes mentioned
in the traditions, which had gradually amal
gamated ; and the settlement in Cuba and
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 217
Hayti of the Mayas, will account for this
mixture of synonyms. But the existence
also of many homonyms, lead us to a former
more simple speech, probably monosyllabic
and quite regular as the oriental idioms, to
which it is most akin.
From the primitive languages of North
Africa and South Europe, it had received
this regular position of ideas ; but by the
mixture with the Maya aud Mexican na
tions using the inverse form, it borrowed
that new form. The same happened in
Europe to the Celtic and Oriental tribes,
who received in Greece and Italy the in
verse form of speech from the Scythian,
Illyrian and Gothic tribes.
The comparative examination of the
Haytian and dialects, was pursued by me,
upon all the languages of the earth, as I
was determined that one American nation
at least, should be traced philologically to
its real origin. Thus I found many thou
sand analogies of it, out of which I have
used about 1500 in the annals, notes and
vocabularies. A single American language
does then contain more comparative analo
gies in about 200 words than all those col
lected by Vater and Malte, out of 400
American languages ; and this fact upsets
all the illusions, theories and false views,
based thereon by them, Humboldt and
But this comprehensive labour teaches
218 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
other facts, by far more important am
available. 1. That American language;
have analogies with all the languages o.
the earth, 2. That they have similar analo
gies with each other, 3. That it is only th(
superior number of analogies that may in
dicate a filial or parental connection ou
of America, 4. And that also similar great
est number of analogies, indicate the pa
rental relations of American languages anc
nations between themselves, 5. Lastly that
unless a language and nation is compared
with all the others, we can never ascertair
accurately, nor trace its real parentage
This consequence is obvious, although it
will not please the lazy or timid philologists
and historians. It shall be further pursued
and elucidated hereafter ; but now 7 let us
apply these rules to the Haytian.
I could give 400 comparisons. Let us
select a few.
2. Ainu of Clioka islands between Japan
and Kamchatka, 22 comparable words 4
alike in Haytian Boat, house, no, drink
Mutual affinity only 21 per cent. No pa
2. Singala of Ceylon, 50 comparable
words, 16 analogies, with Haytian Mutual
affinity 32 per cent. Very distant parentage.
3. Guanch of the Canary island nearest
to Hayti in the east, 32 comparable words,
14 akin. Mutual affinity 42 per cent.
IIAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 219
4. Mandara. Handsome black nation
in the centre of Africa, 12 words compar
able, 6 akin, one, water, man, kin-, mo
ther, river Mutual analogies 50 per cent.
Nearer connection than with the Guanch,
or separation less remote.
5. Pelagic* or ancestors of the Greeks
and Italians. Comparable words in all the
ancient and modern dialects nearly 200,
whereof about 100 offer more or less analo
gies ! Mutual affinity 80 per cent ! Com
plete and near connection.
Therefore the Haytians are of Pelagic
origin ! No other group of languages offer
anything like as many. The nearest afterj
are the Atlantic L. Lybian, Egyptian, Bask,
Sanscrit, Persian &c. who are all connected
with the Pelagic nations. The analogies
with the Tartars, Chinese, Polynesians &c.,
are all less in amount.
In America the Haytian affinities are of
course the greatest with the Aruac nations
of South America ; who are their brothers,
and extend to the Taos of Tucuman and
the Tinguis or true Patagons of Pigafetta.
Yet they may have been divided long ago,
or ever since their American settlement :
since out of two selected for comparisons,
after the vocabularies, the Araguas had
only 70 per cent of analogy, and the Cairi
only 56 per cent. The nearest affinities
after these, were with the Apalachis, Na-
chez, Cadoz, Huastecas, Mexican, Ta-
rasca, Maya, Chontal fyc of N. America,
220 HAYTAIN LANGUAGE.
and the Darien, Betoy, Peruvian, Chili,
Mbaya fyc. of South America.
Those with the nations of N. America of
Asiatic origin, and the nations of South
America of African origin, such as the
Linapis and Guaranis, were much reduced.
See the compared vocabularies.
The Haytian shall now become therefore
one of the touchstones of other American
languages, to verify their eastern or At
lantic origin, and above all the connection
with the American Pelagians.
Let us now consider the forms and pe
culiarities of this interesting language, and
first its phonology.
It appears to have all the sounds of the
Italic languages; but it lacks the Greek
TH, PS, the Cairi had TH. It has been
written by Spaniards, and their simple or
thography applies well to it ; but leaves a
doubt whether it had the Celtic and French
u (unless it be y) Hebrew and English SH,
lacking in Spanish. Their CH is as in
English, and the French TCH. It had
the gutural X of the Greeks and Spanish,
written X and J. Also the Spanish LL,
GN or N, and TZ.
It had few P being changed to B ; few
F often changed to V ; few L changing to
Y ; few S changed to Z ; few D changed
to T. It had no nasal sounds as in Italian,
AN becoming Ana <fyc. Many dipthongs
AC, OEI, IA, AI, UA, AU, El &e. as in
Italian, each vowel sounded. This made
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 221
the language soft, pleasing and musical as
in Italian and Polynesian. Dangleria says
the accent was always on the last syllable,
as in French.
On the grammar of it, nothing has been
written ; what Vater has said is quite loose
and inacurate. We have not even the
Lord s Prayer in it, so as to serve as a
model. Our only guides are a few trans
lated phrases of Roman and Dangleria;
but they enable us to perceive the main
features of it.
One of the chief was the great use of
articles, as in Italian ; but with a peculiar
one GUA, put commonly before, but some
times after the nouns. It was a demon
strative article, meaning such, or this, that,
these, those ; but never changing and com
mon as our The : while this indicative The
was declinable or changing as in the Italic
languages, and extremely various, although
always prefixed, expressed by I, HI, HIN,
NI, N , ZI, LI &,c. A third kind of arti
cle was O, which when added, appears to
have been comparative, and to mean Akin,
Like, Similar, or our English AS. The
relative article Of was A prefixed.
Examples of Articles.
Gua-yava This pear.
Gua-ma This great, or lord.
Gua-tiaos Those brothers,
Ma-za-gua Great plain such.
Bala-gua Sea such, the ocean.
I- Guana The guana or lizard.
Ni-taino The good or noble.
Mi taino My noble lord.
Li-ani The wife. Eyeri dialect.
Hin-Guaili The such-sons, the children,
Ziba o Stone like, stony.
A-na Of bloom, a flower.
A-boria Of labor, a vassal.
A-maca Of wood, a bed.
A-ma Of great, water.
A-reiti Of rite, song.
These articles formed probably the de
clinations of nouns, as we do not perceive
a different desinense. This form was more
like the Celtic, Oscan, and Greek, than the
The feminine was formed nearly as in
Italian, O changing to A. Taino, Taina,
Lord, Lady Hito, Hita, Man, Woman;
but there must have been irregularities
difficult to trace : as some words masculine
end in I, S, N, U, L, Perhaps some where
Some words are formed by duplication,
implying an amplitude, as in the Oriental
language. Bi life, Bibi mother and wife
in dialects. Ba habitation, Baba, Vava
Father. Ma great, Mama mother. Xau
cake, Xauxau bread or large cake.
The plurals are chiefly in I as in Italian,
or in S as in Spanish ; but there are some
irregular plurals. Taino, Taini, Lord,
Lords. Hito, hitos man, men.
EL son. ILI sons. Zend angel, Zetnes
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 223
The Eyeri dialect forms many plurals in
UM. Eyeri man, Eyerium men ; Inara
woman, Inayum women.
The adjectives are put before cr after
the substantives, blending the two forms ;
and the prevailing form in compound words
is doubtful, perhaps the regular as in Latin.
Examples of regular position.
Ana-caona Flower (of) gol.l.
Buhui-tihu Priest high or eminent.
Examples of inverse positions.
Bo-hito Old man or priest.
Jaya-cl Earth -son.
N abor-itas The working men.
The adjectives are chiefly formed from
nouns, and often by a simple O added, thus
Ziba stone, Zibao stony, Zibayo mount.
Tarei heaven, Tareigua heavenly or
Duhos wealth. Duilizi wealthy or
The superlatives are commonly formed
by duplication. Ua old, Uaua very old.
Co fruitful, Coco very fruitful, the coco
Or else by the affix Ma which amplifies
The pronouns appear very simple.
MI, M first person for I, me, my, mine ;
but our is Ahia 1
TI. T Second person for thee, thou, thy,
224 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
LI, L Third person for he, she, his, her.
NI, N Common like It or rather On of
How their plurals are formed, is doubtful ;
but perhaps the inflexions alone formed
them. These pronouns are pure Italian !
or rather primitive. They were often dis
pensed with as in Italian.
Of the verbs we know little or nothing.
By a few examples of the verb to be, it was
quite irregular as with us.
EX To be Tei be thou Bei being.
Beira a being Dacha I am.
El he is Zi it is, this is.
In these Ei appears the root, derives
from Eil, and was then similar to El son,
as Zi to Izi eyes.
This verb joined to others was added to
words. Guarocoel we know he is, may be
analyzed Gua-roco-el such-know-he-is.
We have an example of negative verbs
in Macabuca I do not care, which is Maca-
buca not-care, or never-mirid ; in French
tfimporte, in Italian non euro.
Of the syntax we may form an idea by
the few preserved phrases ; which I have
analyzed as follow, and compared with the
! Teitoca thou be quiet. Tacitu Italian.
tocheta much, molto.
zinato angly. irato.
Guame-chyna this great God. gran-
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 225
Gua-ibba that go. Vai It.
2. <[ zinato angry, irato.
macabuca not care, non euro.
Dios Spanish God. Dio It.
3. ^ Aboria Servant. Servo.
dacha I am. Sono.
his idiom or position of words is perfect
in Italian which admits of many transposi
tions; but in English syntax and idiom
these phrases mean
1. Be quiet, God will be very angry.
2. Begone, I do not care if he is angry.
3. I am the servant of the Spanish God.
The Haytian numbers have not been
transmitted to us, and I could only collect
the following secondary numbers Ata
first, Bern second, Abem third : which
however are primitive and indicate a bi
nary numeration : although the language
had probably the decimals.
By a careful analytical process I have
been able to decompose the compound
words, and even reach their monosylabic
roots. All the long words can be thus
analyzed, and show that this compound
form only arises, as usual in American
languages, by the blunders of the Spanish
writers, who WTote long words instead of
short ones; blending articles and affixes.
The Haytian thus analyzed and reduced
is a very simple language, approximating
to the primitive and oriental forms, wherein
short monosyllables of generic import,
226 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
formed the base of the speech, and became
modified by union and relative position.
By these means the following essential
roots of the language have been collected,
and are given to help future similar inves
tigations of American languages.
Examples of composition.
Cazabi Bread. Ca-za-bi soil-fruitful-life.
Manali Sea cow. Ma-na-tl great-thing-
Turei Heaven. Thir-ei Thou-light-be.
Furzidi Cloudy, fur-zi-di gloom-it-is-
day. (or now)
Areiti Song, rites. A-rei-ti of reality
Naniclii Soul. Na-ni-chi thing the active.
Maroyo Moon. M#-ro-yo great lovely.
74 essential monosyllabic roots of this
language or genera of ideas.
A, Of, as, like.
Ac, Holy, sacred, religious.
AM, Water, root, plenty.
AN, Male thing, man, people, folk.
AT, One, alone, first, unic.
BA, Father, ancestor, dwelling.
BAL, Raft, floating, wave, sea.
BAN, Wind, air.
BAO, Music, lyre, instrument.
BAT, Beating, game, play, ball.
BEM, Second, double, twin, two, next.
Bi, Life, wife, mother.
BOA, Habitation, house.
BOR, Labor, work, vassal, service.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 227
CA, Land, soil, earth, dry.
CAN, Fish, swift, bad.
CHI, Active, soul, work, wine, lively.
CIION, Hot, dry, fever.
CHUC, Take, grasp, hold.
Co, Soil, fruitful, fountain, dog, thread.
COAT, Joy, delight, happiness.
Cu, Chapel, altar, hearth, fire, all.
Cus, Worm, creeping.
Di, Day, now, actual.
DUH, Wealth, riches, treasures, property.
Ei, Existence, to be.
EL, Son, tribe, child, he is.
FUR, Gloom, dark, cloud, fury.
GIA, Fowl, bird, flying.
GUA, Such, this, that, these, those.
GUEY, Shell, hollow, closed.
HA, Yes, sure, certain.
Hi, The, indication, here.
Hio, House, hut, cottage.
I, The, sign of life and action.
IO, God, the living-type.
IT, Man, male.
IN, Woman, female.
IZ, Eyes, looks.
L ,LI, He, she, they, his &c., oft. changed
MA, Great, big, larger, increase, mothers,
MAS, Food, to eat &c.
MI,M , Me, my, mine.
NA, Thing, bloom, lizard.
Ni,N , The thing, my thing.
228 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
No, NOA, Boat, navigation, noble.
O, Like, similar, akin.
OB, Copper, yellow.
Pu, Wood, purple.
RA, REI, Real, rite, evidence, offspring.
Ro, Love, belove.
Ri, Male, people, men.
SOR, West, Eve, late, far.
TOA, Breast, milk.
Ti, High, lofty, eminent.
TAB, Tube, pipe.
TAI, TIAO, Brother, friend, good.
Toe, Rest, peace, quiet.
UA, Old, ancient.
VA, Cave, hollow, father, origin.
VAR, War, warrior.
XAU, Cake, baked, bread.
Xi, Strong, pungent, pepper.
YAR, End, tail, vent.
Yu, White, bright.
ZA, Grass, fruitful, plenty.
ZEM, Angels, deities, idols.
ZIB, Stone, rock.
Zic, King, ruler.
Such was the Haytian language, once
spoken by several millions, and a western
branch of the Pelagic stock ; that derived
from the Asiatic Pelegs and Palis, once
peopled nearly all the shores of the Medi-
teranean 3 or 4000 years ago.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 229
The following comparative vocabularies
will prove this fact. They have not been
made to support it ; but to find the truth,
arid the probable ancestors of this Ame
rican nation, by seeking them all over the
earth. If this nation one of the nearest to
the eastern hemisphere, is thus found of
such remote antiquity, those further re
moved and inland may well be deemed
equally old, or rather older still : which
their own history shall disclose.
Out of the 234 words collected ; many
it will be perceived, are hardly comparable;
being names of peculiar animals and plants.
About 200 offer comparisons with our lan
guages well known. It must be remarked
that the Spaniards borrowed many Haytian
words, which have since been introduced
into Spanish and other European languages.
Humboldt has given a list of them. Those
admitted in the English language now are,
hurricane, canoe, keys or islands, tobacco,
pimento, yam, tomato, cassava, savana,
mahogany, patatas, mangrove, indigo, co
pal, maize, bananas, parrot, guano, coco,
cacao, guava, hammock or hanging bed &c.;
which must not be compared, since they
have been borrowed by us from the Hay^
tian. The Spaniards have besides, chichas,
balza, Cazic spelt cacique, aguti, manati,
maguey, tiburo, guayac, macana, bejuco 3
nigua, tuna, aji, zeyba,&c.
230 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
Yet several of those words may be use
fully compared in ancient languages often
extinct, previous to the late connection
with America. Thus we find analogies
for maize, canoe, cazic, cayman, yam,
chicha, macana, manati &c., in many : in
dicating very ancient connections. Even
the words manati, hurricane, canoe, nigua
&,c, have affinities in modern Italic lan
guages, not derived from Hayti.
Comparative TAINO Vocabulary of
Authorities, R. Roman C. Colum
bus D. Dangleria, Ac. Acosta, Her.
Herrera. M. Munoz, L. Las-Casas,
O. Oviedo, G. Garcia or Gili, E. Ed-,
wards, H. Humboldt, V. Vater, A. all
or nearly all of them, Laet, Diaz, St.
Mery, Ey. Eyeri Dialect.
All or whole Quis R. D. Xus O.
Analogies, Oya Congo, Jikoga Japan, Chu h oat Nepal,
Huy Copt, Qualunque Italy. Ixquich Mexican, Kiyih
Angel and Idol. ZEMI, Zcmes, Che-
mes A. analogies in annals.
Alligator or crocodile. CAYMAN A.
Caram Hornu, Taymah Arabic, Cuina Bechuana,
Caimio Chamoa Egyptian Dialects. Cayman Peru
vian, Camac Mexican, ^mangam Lin a pi.
Ants or pismires COMEXON R. see notes.
Apple, pear, guava. GUAVA, Guaiva,
Quay aba, Xagua A.
Jpis, Pttar, old French, Apple English, vfywas, Carba
Pelagic, Carpos Greek, Carpath Aramic, Ribi Egypt.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 231
Angry ZYNATO D.
Irato Ital, Orgytheis Greek, Cato (bad) Ausonian,
Yahat Malay, It a Tonga.
Am, I am DACHA D.
JVac/t Turan, Da (is) Bask, Davo Sanscrit. Naca
Maipuri, Ehaca Tarasca.
Arachis or ground-nut. MANX, Manis A.
Aloe MAGUEY. Magheih H. Agave
Annona or Papaw GUANAVAN H.
Ananas or pine-apple BONIAMA G. Fan-
Annato or red paint ACHIOTO H. Bixa G.
Apart, aside, the side NARA R. Parte
It., Share English &c.
Armadillo ATATU E.
Army GUARAVARA G., see War.
Air, see Wind.
Above UBEK in Eyeri, Super, Ubique,
Breast and milk TOA R primitive word
found in all languages,
Teth Celtic, Tit J^axon, Tad Chaldaic, Toho Ainu,
Aha (milk) Araiuic, ^AoGuanche, Tea Bisharis, Doa
Bread or cake CAZABI, Cazavi A. Cuac,
Maru in dialects.
Also primitive found in 100 languages. Oguia Bask,
Jlhran Celtic and Berber, Shakua Abask, Kabaka
ISuba, Khas Haikan, Maru Zingani, Yacu Dhagul
mountains, Jlxans Pelagic, Artos Greek &c. Cuzavi
Tayrones, Cosque Chili, Casaah Cado, Cancu Peru,
Shokua Atakapas, Pasca Apalachi &c.
Be, to be, TEI, Ei D. Primitive.
232 HAYTIAX LANGUAGE.
Ei Aramic, E Italic, Hei Arabic, Eu Armoric,
Hei Oscan, Esti Greek, E Haikan, Hein Pelagic,
Eolian, Pet Egypt &c.Eini Tarasca, Atz Chay-
Being, and a being, BEI, BEIRA A. pri
mitive, same roots,
Boat, CANOA A. Pages.
Primitive word of 100 languages, Nau Sanscrit, Pela
gic, Osset, Nave, Barca Italic, Nans Greek, Guy on
Guanch, Scafo, Cahekiu Sicilian, Xepec Lybian, Ba-
colo lllyric, Cahani Ainu, Cayic Turk, Doa Arabic,
Naos Haikan, Ani Aramic, Cana Bastul or Iberian,
Naoi Celtic, Kan Teutonic &c. Noatek Mbaya,
Cana/ma, Canabir Galibis, Palayak Aleutian, Banias
Bird, fowl, BOGIAEL R. Ipis in Cuba.
Compare Halit and Ibis Egypt, Pirid old Saxon,
Ipira Hindu, Vogel German, Polio Oscan. Ugedu
Sicily, Ogia Celtic, Uchel Ausonian, Bo Burman,
Mapd Suanic, Haliga Pelagic &c. Gualpa Peru,
Coxol Huasteca &c.
Bed. AMACA A. Amazas L. Barbacoa
H. Nehera, Nekera in Dialects.
Ekia, Kunera, Greek, Tamapat Malay, Nedokuri
Japan, Carna Lusitanian, Make Egypt Camata Peru,
Amaca, Akat Galibi, Mucara Betoy ? Jlmaca Yaoy,
Blue and violet, TUNNA, Quibey, Guei,
dialects. Cyanus Greek, Chuanta Abask.
Beer, CHICHA A.
Alicha, Ckeruisa Gauls, Chelia Cantabrians, Chacoli
Bask, S/iuuku China, Ichna, Isua African Atlantes,
Acka (VYine) Aramic C/iica Peru, C/iicha Chili,
AJbayas, Cackina Apalachi, Huicu Galibis &c.
Beloved, loved, Rozi, Berozi R.
Eros Greek, Behar Persian, Careich Celtic, Cara
Italic and Hebrew, Heri Sanscrit, Eiras, Meres Egypt,
Amore Italian, Amuri Sicilian.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 233
Ball, ball-game, BATOS D. Batei G.
Orpatos Greek, Ballota Italic, Baton French, Bandy,
Bate old English Pali, Palican Chili.
Beast, beastly, wild, Caracol R.
Caracal Lybian, Car Turan, Heraca, Ferua Italy,
Caracol Berber Atlantes, Caracoler old French, Ho-lo
old Chirfese, Olo-olo Bugis and Macasar.
Basket, HAVA G. Primitive, see Cave.
Bright, TUREIGNA D. see Light.
Bananas, BANANAS Her. Camois G.
Bad fellow, VAQUIANO Ac. Paquiano
Brother, GUATIAO Her. Tayo Polyne
sia, Fratielo Ital. D.
Blood, MOINALU Ey.
Omoina Aramic, Idoimen African Atlantes, Odola
Bask, Zemo Zend, Tola Arabic, Haimai Pelagic,
Haematos Greek, Aimonos Romaic, Hamanos Illyric,
Mulu Koriak and Kamchatka.
Corn, maize, MAHIZ, MAYZ A.
TKfajza Bask. Mas Nepal and Congo. May Kirata of
Imalaya, Me Chinese, Maza Pelagic, Maiz Turan,
Zimidi, Zhnind Caucasian languages, Mozcn Guanch,
Tientsin, timezin tomzin African Atlantic Hazez
Apalachi, Iziz Huasteca, Zara Peru, Yasit Cora,
Cold, YMIZUI R. Hima Sanscrit, Hiems
Latin, Frimat French.
Cave, cavern, COVA, Vava D. Giaga,
Caca, Cabina, Phinon Pelagic, Caura Lybian, Thebi
old Egyptian, Tabaita Ausonian, Ketena, Phian Os-
can and Etruscan? Libanah, Cuena Arainic, Tana
Sicily, Deina Teuton. . . . Primitive.
Cotton, MAPU E. ZEIBA A. Gosupon
Greek^ Kapas, Kipi Sanscrit language,
234 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE*
Bombaz Pelagic, Co sib old Arabic.
Cloth, see dress.
Club, see sword.
Copper, TUOB C. Yellow copper, HOBIN
D. Kuop Pelagic, Kupros Greek, Cu~
Careless, I don t care, MACABUCA D.
Cutting, knife, HENEQUEN. Ecuta Bask,
Totenika Greek, Sikunatant Pehlvi, Kan-
giac Arabic &c.
Children or tribe, EL, ILI, GUAILI R.
Primitive, analogies already given in annals.
Clusia alba, or copal tree, COPEI, Copal
Conch-shell, Maguey C. as Aloe.
Cake, XAUXAU G. Akes C. see Bread.
Xau is primitive.
Cocos, Coco G. Coquillas in Boriquen.
Cedar, CAUVANA G.
Cacao, CACAO A. same in Mexico &c.
Church, temple, chapel, Cu Acosta, Tzia.
Primitive, same name in Maya, Chontal,
Mexican &c. Gru Japan, Tia Chinese D.
Cloudy, FURZIDI, Her.
Cane, YARUMA, Her.
Crabs, Taracolas. Grankio Italian,
Dress, mantle, cloth, COCHIO D. R. Fa-
Akico Guanch, Haico Berber, Cachaca Gaul, Coehaya
Slavonian Poncho Chili, Cuayt Galibi.
Danse and song, rites and worship AREI-
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 235
TOS A., Areites D., Areiti G., Batocos G.
Iroitos sacred songs of Greeks, Ticos Illyrian, Ar-
tesis, Orchcsis, Xoreite, danses of Pelagians and
Greeks, Jlriette (son"-) French and Ital., hurah Sax
on, Akura Havay Yaravis Peru, Mitotvs Mexican.
Dog, Cuchis, Gochis, Alco (a peculiar
Kkoy Caucasus, Cunis Pelagic, Kiuen China, Chin
Mungur of Nepal, Cfiien French, Cucus Persian, Cu-
cura Sanscrit, Cucha Newar, Cuxur Nepal, Cinicha
Guanch Atlantes Cuch Curdish, Cho Siam Chichi,
dlco Mexican, Chegua Chili, Cule Lule, Allco Peru,
Day, Di Primitive Dies Latin and all
Daughter, RAHEN Ey.
Chera Copt, Jlhtt, Raena Sanscrit, Nuora Italic
Ninah Darien, Tahira Omagua.
Dead, ghost, spirit,OriA, Opoyem, Goeiz.
Boa old Ethiopic, Apw&ya Pelagic, lya Bi&liri,
Obit Latin, Leoba Irish, Zabi Bask, Obiah, Oabye,
Africans Pitini, Conopas Peru, Ho, Obild Othomi,
Maboya Galibi, Chipi Ottawa.
Devil and Evil, TUYRA D., see Annals.
Mabuya Eyeri is Carib.
Eternal, MAMONA R. Jemao, title of God,
Earth, land, and island, JAYA, Khaya,
Cayos, Hay, Guaca fyc. A Primitive,
Eat, to eat, food, to feed, IMAS, MAni A.
Mets Celtic, Yam Slavic, Jian Bask, lahamas Kam
chatka, Macanu Malay, Uem Copt, Mas Sanscrit and
Thibet, Mashu Nepal Micuni Peruvian.
End, tail, YARIMA D.
Ura$ Greek, Ora Anglo-Saxou, Gomcra A ramie,
236 HAYTAIN LANGUAGE.
Oari Japan, Ura Manchu, Brim Teutonic Yara
Emerald, gem, and money, AGUACAT, O.
Achates Greek, Agata Latin &c.
Eyes, Izi, O. Primitive, Mizi in Poly
nesia, Opsis Greek, Aiz English, Iz Orien
tal language Cost Cahiri.
Field, plain, CONUCO G. V. ZAVANA Za-
naga, Mazagua, A.
Khana Pehlvi, Bashan old Arabic, Chonu Yakut,
Azagar, Zahal, Caha, Amaza, African Atlantes, Coy
Copt, Age,r Latin, Kuni, Nabeku Iberian Spanish
Cog Guarani, Cu Omaguas, Tzallan Huasteca.
Fly, flying-insect, COCUYO, Cuinix, Zie-
vas. Huica Pelagic, Cuic Sanscrit, Mus-
Fountain, COA, Maca, Mini. Cum
Hindi, Ain Arabic, Hecoas Pelagic.
Frog, TOA G. Onomatopeia.
Father, AHIA, Baia^ R., Vava, Baba Ey.
Primitive, found in 500 languages.
Bap Lybian, Ii>as />&# of atlantes, Jib Oriental Lang,
P Thibet, Yaija Kawi, BaboAvo Italy, Ayenl French,
Jiij Votiac and Edda, Oaba Abase, Aita Bask ; Ba
Ab Baba, Sanscrit; Bay Jolof. Yaya Peru, lyay
r J"aos, Haia Sheba, Ochai Yaqui, \apa Cora, Lahai
Cochimi and Lamones, Ahay Eslen, Aoy Eclemac,
Jlya Yarura, FiZamnca, Alien Yaraeos, Yare Puri,
Baba Saliva, Papa Tamanac and Cuna, etc.
Frolic, Intoxication. Barbasco St.
Mary, Frasco Sicilian.
Fish, ICAN, Guaycan M.
Than Malay, Icthos Greek, Guiena lolof, Nga, Gna
Limbua and Newar of Nepal, Piscan (3scan, lea Ton
ga and Nukahiva, Sakana Japan, Iguah Java, I a-
eun Wokon, Hucat Cora, Mahach Nachez.
Fire, CUYO D, Cuxo H.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 237
Ecu Hottentot, Cuat, Taquat afr Atlantes, (7?/i/Kawi,
Koke Coptic, Ogiak Tmk, Cuasi Japan, Fvyo Iberian,
Fuoco Italy, Ucut Moluccas. Totecuh Muscolgi, Cu
Sussih, /CM Lule, Eguza Saliva, Yucu, Xucu Moxas,
Cutha, Chili, Cay ah Malali, Cuati Sapibo, Kueh Ta-
Fire-fly, CUCUYOS G. Cucuyo H. Locu-
yos H. Cucuix D. Zievas in Lucayas O.
see Fire and Fly.
Foe, ANAKI O. Akani Ey.
Katahi Japan, Neikos (strife) Greek, Uaina Slavic,
Vahini Sanscrit, Katalki Kendy, Jinakim Araraic,
Acanitu Sicilian, Nemico Italian.
Flower, Blossom, ANA A.
*Qnu, Matia, Eaypt, Jlnota Singala, JUnathos Greek,
Suan Newar, Jiihina Palo, Tana Japan, Dam Otho-
Fruit. INAS. GUAUANAS, Ac. Derived
Fruitful Co. Com Iberian, Comestible
Fever, see heat.
Flamingo, Red bird. IPIRIS Diaz in Cu
God. JOVANA O. Yocalmna R. and
many other names and titles in all the Is
lands. See the annals and notes. All are
compound primitive words: additional anal
Jan Janus of Etruscans, Ju Ombrian, Yu Ausonian,
Jovis Latin, Jona, Yauna, Juncva, Jaungoicva of
Basks Jo-canna, Janum of Lybians, 1 BUJE of Mo
ses, Joh Luchu, Yavang Sunda, lona Troy an, lunak
Slavic, Jlchaman Ahican. Guanch, &c. Yah, yoha
^aAChactah, Hioh New Albion, Ya/to Apalachi, Oy-
vac Old Peruvian, Jahuagon Huron, Wakon Ozagea-
Conomt Yaruras, Oho Aleutian, Ogha Othomi, &c.
238 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
Great, Big,Large. MA, Magua, Guama,
A. Primitive, akin to all old Languages,
Magnus Latin, Megas Greek, Ma Oriental and San
scrit Languages, Mam Pehlvi, Mese Zend, Maha
Hindu and Bali, Mayue Jolof, Maiinu Fulah, Mah
Iran, May Medic and Irish, Gvadul Phenician, Maigh
Celtic, Magla Carthuli, Waka Japan. Ecvah Tzu-
luki, GwaNachoz, Guazu Guarami, Zhuma Muyzcas,
Ma Apalachi, Manaho Othomi.
Green. HUARAHUA, Guaragua Laet.
Xloris Greek, Viridis Latin, Huryo Nepal, Veragua
Gold. CAONA, CAUNI
Canchana Sanscrit, Sona Hindu, Kin China, Sanu
Manding, Sun Nepal, Concha Peru.
Go and Come. HA. Guaiba D.
Odebo Greek, Jlmbular, Va, Vaya Italic D, Hanba
Cosa afr, Ya, Gati Sanscrit, Hoye Tarahumara,
Hupua Yaqui, ya Chactah, Bai Patagon, AuUa
Gourd. HIGUERA. Hibuera D. O. Hibue
Guara Bask, Cucurbit a Latin.
Gentle, mild, tame. MATUM D. Bonia-
Manso Italy, Matio (Foolish J Amato (beloved), Bo
nus, mitis Latin, Gathos Greek.
Guitar, Lyre. HABAO. R.
Hiuhaba Bask, Cholao Hindi, Balajo Jolof, Oboe,
Hinoa Italic D.
Garden, Delight, Joy, Happiness. COAI
R. CHALI Ey.
Lall, Loula Egypt, Chagla Aramic, Shall Cashmir,
ISkialar Sicily, Gala Italy, Yaul Scand, Hali Zend,
Coya Pelagic, Aoa/i Arnioric, Quali Mexican,
Haylli Peru, Ululaez Maya.
Ghost, Spirit of Dead. GOEIZ. Opoyem
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 239
Necvya Epirian, Goe Greek, Ghaib Aramic and Per
sian, Goiti Slavic Goz Vilela, Coyocop .Xachez,
Grand-father. AHIACAVO R. See Father.
Narguti In Ejeri D.
Guayac, Holy-wood. GUAYAC. Guaya-
can H. Griiacum O.
Grove, Forest. ARCABUTOS Ac.
Good. TIAO R. Taino D, See noble.
House, Habitation. BOA. BoJiio A. Bai
R. Canei M. Tunohoko Eyeri D. Primi
Ocos Pelagic, Hnstau TJomanic, Jicam Afr Atlantic,
Uyon Uigur, Huis Old French, Khaneh Persian, Ka-
naba Thibet, Oneh Old Egypt, Bantaba Fulah, Beit,
baith Aramic, Bara Pelvi, Batos, Beotes Pelagic,
Xna Dorian, Hu Chinese, Bohiga Celtic, Ca Etruscan,
Abode, Booth English Bohio Apalachi, Buhio Maya,
Ochoch Poconchi, fiothi, Baua Galibi, Pohos Tao, Ni-
xai Quiche, Uya Lule, Bahi Aruac, Hitachi Peru, Oca
Guarani, Uca Omagua, Ba Mizteca, Chaho Tarasca.
Head, Summit, beginning, upon, peak.
ZIMU D. Huibo.
Cima, Suma Italic, Ima Sama Pelagic and Sanscrit,
Imula Ombay Id, Kimila Yedzo, Kima Ligurian,
Iman Arabic, Zimba Bunda Conjro, Yvma Japan
Uma Peruvian, Chtme Quiche, China Poconchi, Umitz
Nutka, Muhuti Cora, Yama Othomi.
High, lofty, eminent, excellent, strong,
raised. TIHU. Tichetu, Car, Huibo, Via
Ti Pelagic, Tien Chinese, Tit has Greek, Auti, Alii
Italic, L. Tith Lybian, Tip Saxon, Timal Oscan,
Tohu Copt, Gibor Aramic, Bop Jolof, Obo Mogol, Ube
Singala. Iba Apalachi, Uebo, Uipo Galibi, Hayo
240 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
Heaven, sky. TUREI D. Siela O, Coai-
ba R. Coyaba (Paradise.) Soraya (West
sky.) Ubec Ey.
Uranus, S/tia Greek, Tar an Old Persian, Irem Per
sian, Aru Osset, Ciel French, Coelum Latin, Arai Ta
hiti, Coelba Ausonian, Suraga Bug-is, Suroloyo Kawi,
Surya Sanserif, Sora Japan, Uren Armoric Aral Tu-
ran, Senia Bark, Uiain Pelagic, Hyalla Fullah.
Capu Yaoy and Tamanac, Coane Maya, Cabu Oto-
macas, Turd Paria, Hetucoba Apalachi, FaieGuara-
ni, Purini Tarasca, Cabo G alibi, Tacab Poconchi, Pa
Heart and Soul. NANICHI
Nasha Chaldic, Anima Latin, Han Chinese, Can
Turk, Hvchi Deri Persian, Uhane Havay, Zinio Af-
gan, Nima Pelagic, Aim Egypt, Jlnichal Celtic,
Nehima Congo, Kaueshin Aleutian, /chick Huazteca
Jlqna. Cumana, Cama Peru, Nashawanith Powhatan,
Ninohuani Galibi, Nandi Ottomaca, Juani Y arura
Amitani Maipuri, &c.
Holy. Auc D. YAC G. GUACA R.
Cadish A ramie, Jlucus Old Latin, Hagios Greek, Agi
Tonga, Haga Pelagic, Ca Turan, Hancus Ausonian,
Khuab Old Egypt Aca, huaca Peru, Wakon Da
cota, Hitncait Cora, Hualic Huazteca.
Heat, hot, fever, dry. ZECIION. Zezio-
Ako Old Arabic, Siciis Latin, Xerone, Chaone Pela
gian, Chon Egypt, Chaud (Cho) French, Can Roman
ic, Add Chili.
Hog, Swine, Pecari. ZAINO. Scuna Ac.
Sis-ino Japan, Cltinia Ausonian, Saina Russian,
Zayos Pelagic, Zannn Oscan, Smia/Ligurian, Muaca,
Charcu Celtic, Taguazen Guanch, Tayasu Guara-
ni, Sayoncs Calamari, Nigda Mbaya.
His, her, He, she. LI.
Hill. HUIBO D. Carive Laet, see moun
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 241
Hollow, hole, YARA. Yari, Yaru. Coat-
ris. Trou, Creux French.
Hut. BOHARQUE M. Cartel G. Tuhono-
ko Ey. See House.
Insect. See Little.
Island, CAYA, Caic, Caiz, Caiques. All
see Earth and Land.
Infinite, RAPITA, Apito, Virita R. D. O.
title of God with Guaca holy. Analogies
with Rapid and Veritas Latin.
Invisible, GTJIMAZOA, Zuimaco, Quina-
zona R. D. O. other title of God, com
pound words, perhaps of different import :
with many affinities in divine names of
In, Within, Inside. Hiqui in Cuba Laet.
Indigo, DIGO R.
Is, it is, this is. ZI primitive Ze in Mo
saic and Oriental Languages. He is, she
is, EL or eit, see Grammar.
King. CAZIC A. Cacique, Caciqui, Cax-
icus, Casiche Various spellings. See the
Knowledge, to know. GUAROCO, D.
Char Aramic, Imparar Italic, Rasaca
Life. Bi G. Primitive. I Oriental L.
Vita Italic, Bios Greek, Vie French.
Lizard. GUANA. Iguana A. Yuanas
Her, Aguana Guinea, lagandu Congo,
Atliaguan Pelagic, Manatha Aramic, Gu-
ha Singala, luganas Cumana, Leguan
242 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
Laborer, Vassal, Servant. NABOR, Ana-
boria, Naboritis. See Annals.
Little, Small, Nothing, Insect. NIGUA.
Nigu, niya Sicily, Niente Italic, Ngai Birman, Naga
Hindi, Ngni Newar. Guti Bask, Miuizi Gothic,
Piqua Peru, Ckigua Darien, Nechet Adaiz, Enchique
Land. See Earth.
Lord. See Noble.
Light, Shining. TUREIGNA D. See Hea
Lake, HAGTJAI. See Water.
Man, men, male, husband, people. HITO
GUAM, CARI R. Magua G. 3 roots IT,
RI, AN, connected all over the world : IT
Iota Old Gothic, Itua Polynesia, Toy Old Egypt,
Hitnos Pelagic, Hita Sanscrit, Ati Zend, Itga Nu
bian, Hetus Ausonian, Het Talahet, Dito Kavvi, Fito
Japan, Tvhihuit Cumanche, &c.
RI in Ria Congo, Vir Latin, Hari Tombuctu, Ira
Fambu, Er Turk, JHf Celtic and Haikan, Yeri Hun
garian, Ari Peruvian, Nieri lllyrian, Vair Gothic,
Viro Timtiacan, // Oscan, &c.
AN in Nan, Yang, Chinese D. Ani Anam, Gens
Latin, Han Mbaya, Huinac Tzendal, Aner Greek,
Oraug Malay, Guau Gaunch, Hua Apalachi, Hu-
entu Chili, Guana Guanas, &c.
Mother. MAMA D. Primitive word,
found in 500 Languages ; identic or nearly
so in all the Sanscrit and European Lan
guages, the Atlantic Dialects, Bask and
Manchu, Egypt and Tartary, Thibet and
Polynesia; changed to Mu in Chinese;
Am, Om in-Arabic Languages In Ame-
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 243
rica quite common also, least changed in
Hama Shebaoy, Amani, Adaiz, Ma Mo-
bima, Mama Betoy, Omagua and Peru.
Moon. MAROYO R. Marohus O. Mona,
Kati in Eyeri. See the Annals.
Much, Many. TOCIIETAD. Tucho Ibe
rian, Chuanti Ausonian, Chehel Persian,
Totus Latin. Tacha Achagua, Mioch
Mexican, Tobu Brazilian.
Mammeafruit. MAMEY D.
Millet. PANYCKE D Panicum Latin.
Mountain or hill, highlands, rough coun
try. TIHUI. Huibo, Baino, Bilbao, Hay-
Mtay Carthul, Oiten Lusitanian, Hauteur (pr hotoer)
French, Tith Pelagic, Buno, Romaic, Gulbo Araraic,
Tohu Copt, Uibui Galibi, Caquihuin Totonac-fv,
Titi Collas of Peru, Ehuata Omagua, Vata Tarasoa,
Hatez Chontal, Guetia Mbaya, &c.
Music, Noise. HABAO, Giahuba.
Hapan Pelagic, Hubub Celtic, Euba Congo, Bhatai
Bali, Behan Turan and Khorazan. Paypa Peru,
frhbal Huazteca, Tupan Guarani.
Me, I, my, mine, myself NI, N , MI,
M . Primitive, found in all the European
and Asiatic Languages more or less devia
Ni, Mich Bask, Ani Aramic, Mina Negro Langs,
Nio Japan, Ne, Me Mexican Languages, Na Apa-
lachi, Ni, Mi Linapi Dial, Hi Tarasca, Jlni Pimas
Muscolgi, Nia Cora, Mio Dacota, Gane, Kuno Japan.
Metal, hard. NIN. Guanin C. Hobin
D. Irania Sanscrit, Vina Jolof, Pa-
nilgue (Iron) Chili.
Manati, Sea-Cow. MANATI A. Laman-
tin French, Mamatino Sicilian.
244 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
Mosquito. JEJEN D. Zinzara Toscan.
Mushroom. YEGAN. Guayegan R Fu
ngus, Agaricus Latin, Mycos Greek, Gu-
arib Slavic, Guaygrion Celtic, and Old
Meadow. ZAVANA. Zabana A. See
Master, Lord. GUAMA. See Prince.
Mantle. YAGUAS. Her. See Dress.
Moving. MANA. See Grammar
Manioc. BONIATA O, is the mild kind,
Mahogany. MAHOGANI H. Cahoba.
Mangrove tree. MANGLE H.
Noble, good, fine, handsome, lord, chief.
TAINO A. Mato Her, Nitaino, Mitaino
Thano Oscan, Tona Japan, Hainac, Theano, Tuyano
Pelagian, Turanos Greek, Zain Turk, Atueyn Birman,
No (fine) Greek, Ethauo Singala, Tayon Kamchatka,
Talen Iberian, Ona (good) Bask, Sitino Old Arabic ;
Tonos. Taminas Scythian, Maitai Polynesia, To-
ani Mexican, Tzalleine Huazteca, Votan Chontal,
Noen Mocobi, Nin Abipon, Hitana Apalachi.
No, Not, Nothing, Bad. MAYANA, MACA
Eyni Mozabi, Lybian ; Nani Romanic, May Dorian,
Niani Ausonian, Niente Italian, Ima Tahiti, Mabi
Birman, Jin Copt, Jlma Othorni, Isana Cado, Ni-
tio Guarani, Mayan Puncays ; Ma, Matar Maya,
Mana Peru, Mnni Poconchi.
^ Nuts. Zibayos D Derived from Ziba
Now, To-day. Di. See Grammar.
Adesso Oggidi Italian.
One, first, alone, unique, ATA, ATU R,
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 245
D. Primitive, found in 200 Languages.
Bat Bask, Yat Kong Chinese, Atus Oscan, Ada Ara-
mic, Ath Egypt, Ala Pelagic, Tahi Polynesia, Tah
Gaman Atr, Auto Greek, Yat Shilo Atlantic, Suat
Sumatra. Ata Muyzcas, Hatun Peru, Mato Pi-
mas, Ata Innuit, Aguit Vilela, Carata Sapibo, Nacut
Micniac, Scatta Onondago.
Old, oldman. UA, BOH. Beh, Bolrito,
Bohique A. See Priest. Holbo Copt,
Bial Huazteca, &c. Very old Uaua
as in Mexican.
Oldest, Eldest. NENECHIN, R. Aine
Onion, Bulb, CABAICOS R. Macoanes
Cepa Latin, Ceba Tonga T si. Kipo Nepal, Cipola Ital
ian, Cipuda Sicilian, Zaibel German, Bacang, Bawang
Malay and Javan.
Omnipotent. LIELLA R. Siela. Title of
God, analogies with EL, and Ciel Heaven
in French, pr. Siel.
Opossum. TON A R.
Ocymum. ZOCIIEN R.
Paddle, Oar. PAGAYA, Pages, Nae D.
Pain (boat) Tahiti, Nae is the root of
boat in all Oriental and Pelagic Langua
Pheasant. Babiayas Her. Cuba. Pha-
Palace. CANEI H. See House.
Peace, repose, rest, quiet. TOCA D.
Sata Lybian, Netuc Tozi old Arabic, Cu-
eto Sicilian, Paca Aussonian, Thegi Scand.
Pepper, pungent, sharp, strong taste.
Axi, AJI. Ages A. Ac is a primitive
word for sharp. Ac, ag Celtic, Acutus La
tin, Oxus Greek, Axi Cumana.
246 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
Priest. BOHITO. Bautio, Buhui, Bohi-
que, Behique. Boition, Bouiti, Buutio,
Boyeto, &c., by different writers, and in
Dialects. See the Annals and Notes.
Pontif, High-priest. BUHUI-TIHU A. See
Part or Share. See Apart.
Pipe, Tube. TOBACO D. Tubus Latin,
Sipos Greek, Hukah Hindi, Chibuc Turk,
Purple. RAGUI. Anigua D. Uarg Cel
tic, Banicos, Iberian.
Patatos. BATATAS. The same in South
Place. GUARA R.
People, men. CHIVI, IBAR D. Cabrcs
Eyeri. See Man.
Parrot. PARACA. Maca Cuba and Aru-
Psidium pyriferum. Guava pear. Guay-
ava, Guaxaba D.
Pimento. PIMENTO. Pimienta Maya.
Poke. CUCATO. Xucato. Pocan Pow-
hatan, Coacum Mohigan, Cuechiliz Mexi
Plain. MAGUA, See Field.
Palm. YAGUA O. Caico Eyeri.
Paradise. COAIBAI R. Her. See Hea
Physician. Bom G. See Priest.
Plumbtree, Myrobolan. XoBosR. Plumbs
Hicaco H. Cainito D.
Prince, Lord. GUAMA D.
Tequeni-gua,, Gua-miniqui Her, Hamon afr Atlantes,
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 247
Sawah Lybian, Lncumon Etruscan, Vimala S&nscrit,
Jllagi&ter Lat. Mana, 3Ienuk, Zend and Old Sanser,
Hamun I r^n,Bvyama Old Arabic Teqitanes Mexican.
Tuiuametin Tarasca, Tequrncs Muyzcas, Inquathil
Huazt*>ca, Amo Choco, Ahnn Maya, &c.
Raft. BALZA A. Balza, Balca Italian
D. Balagan Malay.
Root, Yam. NIAMES. Ames, S fames.
Ima Molucas, Land Macasar, Nutd Copt, Boniam
Celtic, Boan Persian, Niami African L. Nanat
Cora, Momatos Calarnari.
Rabbits. AGTJTI, Aguchi, Huti, Utia,
Cuti A. R. Peculiar Genus Cama like
Rabbits, 4 kinds in Ha) ti, says Laet.
Hutia Largest ; Chemi, Coin, Mohuy,
Smallest. Cama and Pucarara in Dia
lects E. Quinaxes E. Cuba.
Sarayuchi Egypt, Guniyu Sicilian, Cvnic.ulus Latin,
Lag otis Greek, Ciiyes ; Quito, Coy Huazteca, Cuya
Peru, Gurus Tayronas, Quinazis Cauca.
Red. Ris. Diaz, ACHIOTO Her. Bay or
Scarlet-red. Pu, Bu.
Giria Bask, Kir is Arab, Rthita Sanscrit, Rosso Ital
ian, Riibus, Badius, I uniceus Latin, Phoenix, Erythroa
Greek, Bai Eoypt, Bui,ra .V aroco, rbho Thibet.
Rich, Wealth, Wealthy, Treasure. Du-
CHI M. Duhos G. Duyhzi D
Divitia Latin, Guhya Sanscrit, Duhut Hindi,
Dites Daiien, Ciirca Quiche.
Rattle, Holy music. MARACA.
Amara Bali, Raya Pelagic. Quaqua Huazteca,
Amaraca Tupi Brazil, Tamaraca Aruac and Anzcrma,
Retreat. TIBA. Tlibe Moses, Tiba Thi
bet, T/ieba Egypt. &c.
Remora fish. RE^IORA G. Reveo H.
Rambos Ac. Remor Pelagic.
Rope. CABUYA G. Cable, Cord, Eng
lish, French, Italian.
River. See Stream.
248 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
Rites, worship, reality. REITI. Ritus
Sea, Ocean. BAGUA V. Balahua Ey.
Evident analogy with Agua, Aqua, (wa
ter) in Spanish and Italian.
Talahua Mogol, ftalua, Pela Pelagic, Va Sanscrit,
M Persian, Baa Sussu of Afr, Panyui Tarahum, Ca-
gua Saliva, Gna Tupi.
Star, Bright. STAREI D. Primitive,
found from England to India.
Wisterias Greek, Aster Pelagic, Sial Osset, Taroth
Aramic, Tar a Hindi, Star a Sanscrit, Izeran, Yethra
African Atlantic, Izara 13ask, Sitarah Persian.
Sirica G alibi, Tamanac and Otomaca, Chirica Yaoy,
Silica Betoy, Ergrcti Abipon, Stan Aleutian, Setere
Sword, Club, Weapon. MAC AN A A. Ma-
Mukenai Dorian, Makaira Greek, Magal Aramic,
Magvila Bask, Maco (spear) Gaunch, May ado (club)
Do. Mazza Italian. Mace Old English, Macana
Darien, and many other languages or South America.
Macahui \\ exi can .
Stream, River, Flood, NIQUEN. Neguin
D. Ziniquin, Culien, Agua in Cuba.
Dhuni Scanscrit, Dunic Osset, Dejiamen Guanch,
Chuen Chinese, Cuemen Celtic, Hnnica Kay an Turan,
Naltuen Pehlvi, Jlmnica Ausonian, Nukil Afgan,
Binanga Bugi, Annigan Scand, Jinnegar (to drown^)
Italian, Nikji, Kldan Lezjjhi, ]\ihar, Toba Old Ara
bic. Wuinic Arnac, J\ecua Yarura, Cuyk Aleu
tian, Nidachi Cado, Uchi Chacta.
Storm, Hurricane, Fury. FURACANE D.
Huracanes G. Urogan Ey. Derived from
rage and fury of elements, primitive roots.
Rages Soar ah, (rage and storm) Aramic, ftacas
Toba Arabic, Taravat African Negros, Burasca Ital
ian, Oraye French, Hvrlig Saxon, &c.
Sun. BOINIAL, BINTHAITEL. See Annals.
Kachi in Eyeri. See King.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 249
Setting Sun, the West. SORAYA. See
Surya Sanscrit, Soir evening in French, Sera in Ital
ian, Vesper, Hesper, Pelagic, Spera iJomaic.
Song, see Dance. Soul, see Heart.
Small, see Little.
Son, EL. Sons, ILL See Annals. Ra-
bu, in Eyeri. See Grammar.
Stone, Rock. ZIBA A. See the Annals.
Such. GUA. Demonstrative article much
employed, found in many old languages.
Ath Aramic, Arabic, Hebrew, Egyptian,
&/c. (jfiici in South America.
Shell. GUEY C. COHOB O.
Strong. CARIB, AGI A. See Pepper.
Shark. TIBURON Ac. TEBURA O.
Stranger. CHAPETONAC. Guachinango
Diaz in Cuba.
Soup, Boiled. CALALTJ. Bollito It. Olla
Snake. BOBA in Boriquen. Boa Afri
can L., Ob Oriental L., Coluber Latin,
Ophis Greek. Coa Mexican, Boya Gu-
The, English indicative article I, HI, HIN,
ZI, NI, LI. Primitive, variable in Dia
lects, root I, same as I Italian, IL, L do.
Y", Ye Old English, I Persian and Lybian,
\n Celtic, Y Old Arabic, Ni, N> Illyrian,
Old Havay, TI Cora, TL Mexican,
Ini Pimal, Ni Lapani D., Nuya Achagua,
lu Payuri. See Grammar.
This, that, these, those. GUA, same as
such. See Grammar.
250 HAYTAIN LANGUAGE.
Thou, thy, thine. TI, TE. Primitive
from Celtic to Sanscrit. Tx, te, toi, tien
Greek and Illiryan, nearly similar in Bask,
Gothic, Pelagic, Latin, Italian, Persian,
Take. CHUG C. Chugue Her. Busca
Italian, Aku Lampung of Sumatra.
Huyca Huazteca, Uhca Tarasca.
Tomato. TOMATES G.
Temple. See Church.
Tree. See Wood.
Town, habitation. BOIIIO, same as house
~Bakus, Pagus, Urbis Italic L., Paese, Pays, Payz
Modern L., C/ioyo Greek D., Bajeth Aramic, Huebo
Iberian, Bohus Pelagic, Bya Scand, &c.
Thread. Hico D. Hilo Oscan, Trico
Greek, Hagu Nepal Hito, Pito Ma
Tobacco, COHIBA O. COGIOBA R. Co-
hoba D. DoJekan Arabic, Tuhica Nuba,
Turtle. ICOTA G. ICOTEA H. Cabini D.
Chucua, Icuma Sanscrit, Boco Bali.
Two, or Second. BEM? Bi Bask, Bi-
nus Latin, Ambi Italian.
Three, or Third. ABEM ?
Tame, Mild. MATUM D. Boniatum O.
Throne. DUCHI M.
Vine, Creeper. BEJUCO D. Bixuco,
Bexucum O., Bochuco M. Grape-vine.
UVERIU. Uyeros M. Uva Italian, Viniera
Catalan, Zibi Arabic, Ivy (pr Aivi) English*
Vassal. See Laborer.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 251
Water. AMA. BAGTJA.
Primitive. Ma Atlantes and Lybian, Jlman Modern
Atlantes, demon Gaunch, Mohu Copt, Nam Siam,
Maim Arabic, Balua Pelagic, Oman Old Arabic,
Ameh Affadeh Negros, Maza Congo, Kama Corana,
Asma Romaic, Agua Spanish, Aigo Komanic, Lagus,
Lacus (lake) Latin and Celtic. May, iWayu, Peru,
Nhama Puris, Amuk, Ahua Tzuluki, lia Chontal, Ma
ya, A Mexican, Agua Veras:ua, Ak Atakapus, Haya
Shebay, Aya Fatura, Ahay Kslen, &c.
Woman, Wife. INUYA. HITA. ITI. BIBI
Inara, Liani, Clmron, Ey.
Several roots, Iti same as Hito man, Bibi is wife D.
Gyna Greek, Guine Old French, Nurin Desatir and
Hindi, Cunica, Enaztia, Toy a Bask D., lona Pela
gic, Zaita (girl) Bask, Zitta (bride) Sicilian, Tanaya
Tedla Atlantic, Yuri, JVm Chinese Dialects, Ita, Itua
Oscan, Gin Haikan, Gina Australia, Cuinta Congo,
Nuriu Hindi, Mac/tint Polynesia; Ana, Biana Oscan,
Puta Venitian, Heana Beana Celtic, Zilella (girl)
Italian, Nurani Pehlvi, S/tiii d Copt, Wanito Kawi,
Uxor (wife) Latin, Boba, Chura Slavic Bui gar, Biby
Malabar, Muchn Iran, Keion (girl) Dorian Greek,
Koriza Romanic, &c. Uita Cora, Zitua Mexican,
Nua.titu Saliva, Esena Moxas, Tigny Muyzcas, Tinio
Maypuri, Yate Mocobi, Nikib Atakapus, Zina (girl)
Otlmmi, Wanita Uchi, Iras Cumana, Ira Coyba, Nia
White. YUCA, LUCA A.
Leucas Greek, CaTuran, Casis Scythian, Chnna Bask
JHuca Le/ghi, Cuc.ua Abask, Luza Chacta, Elu
Galibi, Lapaca Mbaya, Zaco Totonaca, Luc Chili, Yu-
rac Peru, Hacaya Cado, Usca Ozage, Yutaga Moco-
bi. 2c Maya.
Wood or Tree. MACA, MAPU A. BUTOS
Ac. Maica Chimala Dialects.-i
Klia Circaz, Micha Abask, Khad Osset, Taimala
Lezghi, Makia Oscan, (yet forest in Toscan,) Gas
Hindi, Gatz Pehlvi, Aguz Tartar, Cayu Malay,
Ca Omagua and Guarani, Caa Mbaya, Kag Atnka-
pns, Canch "Marh^z, ATirr i
252 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
&c. [Butos is like Bois (bua) French, Wood (Vud)
War, Army. GUAZAVARA G. Huctu Ey.
Warrior. VARA. Root same as in Eng
lish and Gothic, Guerra Italian. &c.
Wanderer. UMAKUA Ey. Omuvagu Si
Wind or Air. BANZEX D. Primitive,
Baud Old Arabic, >Bao Hindu, Bad Persian, Ban Ru-
yaga, Jlndai Oscan, Nabhn Sanscrit, Bentus Ausonian,
Batia Kawi, Hanem Pelagic, Jlhklia Abask, Ehe-
ca Mexican, Jlcate Cora , Pvco Cbetimacha, c.
West. SORAIA R. Warab Old Arabic,
Varapa, Saraya Sanscrit, Urop Pelagic,
Hesper Greek, Vesper Latin, Ural Bugis.
Sor Aramic. See Setting Sun.
World. UUEYA, OCON R. D. On Ori
ental Root, Xton Greek, Queya from Quis-
caya whole earth.
Which, HIQUI Laet. Qui French, 11-
quale Italian, Cui Sicilian.
Worms. Cusi. Piojo in Jamaica.
Cus Lybian, J3aco Toscan, Pioc (vermin)
Yes. HA. Primitive. Ha Lezghi, Ya
Gothic and Lamut, Do Ostiac, Aham
Arabic, Am Haikan, A Timani and Bu-
lam Africa, Uaa Jolof, Yaga Congo, Ay
English, Hea African Atlantes, Haha
Apalachi, Aa Aleutian, Haa Otomaco,
Othomi and Cumanchi, Ya Totonac and
Puris, May Chili, Oyah Ozage, Ahi Cado,
Yellow. HOBAS. Majob Lezghi, Lobi-
dus Ausonian, Bahenda Biaju of Borneo,
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 253
Aubain (Oben) Old French, Hoang Chi
Yuca gloriosa. YUCA E. same in Mexi
co, meaning bright, white.
FRAGMENTS ON THE WESTERN DIALECTS OF
CUBA, JAMAICA, AND THE LUCAYAS ISLANDS
C. Cuba, by Herrera, Diaz, Columbus,
Acosta, Laet, Munoz, &c.
J. Jamaica, by Columbus, Garcia, Go-
L. Lucayas, by Columbus, Acosta, Ovi-
Land or Country, Katos, L. Xai J. JVa-
can, Guaca, C.
Island, Caya, L Cayo, C Caic J.
Stranger, Guachinango, C,
House, Bohio, C.
Remora, Reves, C.
Partridge, Lizas, C. by Ocampo.
Pheasant, Babiayas, C.
Parrot, Maxa C. Macan, J.
Prince, Lord, Guami, C.
Rabbits, Usias, Hutic, Quinaxes C.
Opuntia, Tuna C.
Cacao, Cacao C.
Priest, Behique, Bohique C. L.
River, Agua C.
Corn, Maysi, C.
Bread, Zabi, C.
God, Yocahuna, Guama-coti, Guama-
Supreme being, Attabex, C.
254 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
Ghost, Dupi, J.
Life, Bi, C. L.
Fountain, Mini, C. L.
Wood, Maica, J.
Cedar, Cauvana, C.
Dog, Alco, C.
Alligator, Cayaman, C.
Poke, Cucato, J.
Fire-fly, Locuyos, C. Zievas, L.
Noble, 70, Ttfato, C.
Shell, Cohobas, C.
Guayac, Guacum, C.
Red, Jfo s, C.
White Worm, Cwsi", J.
Palm Worm, Piojo, J.
King. Caxicus, C.
Within, Hiqui, Nacan, C.
Gold, Nucay, C. L. Columbus.
Yams, Mames, C.
Grape Vine, Uveros, C.
FRAGMENTS ON THE EYERI EASTERN DIALECTS
OF BORIQUEN AND THE CARIB ISLANDS.
B. Boriquen, by Herrera, Acosta,&c.
E. Dialect of the Women of Carib, quite
different from Carib, by Rochefort, &,c.
Land, Island, Kati, E. Ca, Ay, B.
God, locana, Guama-nomocon^ B.
Noble, Ditayno, B.
Snake, Boba, B.
Cloudy, Furzidi, B.
Mahogany, Maga, B.
Poison Apple, Manzanila, B.
Cotton Tree, Zeyba, B.
- Violet, Quibey, B.
Bananas, Camois, E.
Coco, Coquillas, B.
Guayac, Guage, B.
Hog, Sairie, B.
Boat, Piraguas, B.
Wood, Tree, Bow, Chimala, E.
Angel, Chemin, Angels, Chemignum, E.
Spirits, Opoyem, E.
Moon, Mona, Kati, E.
Storm, Urogan, E.
Blood, Moinalu, E.
Heaven or above, Ubec, E.
Bread, Maru, E.
Boat, Canoa, Pages, E.
Man, Eyeri, Men, Eyerium, E,
Woman, Inaru, Women, Inuyum, E.
Foe, Akani, EJ
Little, Nianti, E.
House, Hut, Tuhonoco, E.
<Jarden, CAK, JE,
War, Nihuctu, E.
Mother, !?&, Nucu-churon, E.
Father, Baba, Nucu-chili, E.
Grandfather, Narguti, E.
Wife, Liani, E.
Son, Rabu, E.
Daughter, Rahen, E.
Heart, Nanichi, E.
Vassal, Labuyu, E.
Sea, Balana, E.
Bed, Nekera, E.
Sun, Kachi, Cochi, E.
562 HAYTAN LANGUAGE.
Red, Pu, E.
People, Ibas, B. Cabres, E.
Priest, Boyez, E.
Wanderer, Umckua, E.
Devil, Mabuya, E.
VOCABULARY OF THE CAIRI OF TRINIDAD
This Dialect of the ARUAC is the nearest
geographicaly to the Eyeri, and yet very
different ; nearer in words to the Aruac of
the Continent. Therefore the Aruac and
Taino altho belonging to the same group,
are distinct Languages, and the two people
had been separated for ages.
Dudley collected in 1594, about 55 words
of it, which are in Purchas, yet have been
neglected by all the Philologists, Out of
these 27 are in my Taino List, and offer
16 affinities, equal to 56 per cent. The re
mainder 27, lack there and cannot be com
pared ; but afford a kind of supplement to it*
16 COMPARABLE WORDS AKIN IN BOTH,
Water, Bara, Oronuy.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 25?
Eyes, Cost, Scrath.
Boat, Canoa, Canosin.
12 DIFFERENT COMPARABLE WORDS.
Metal, Iron, Mointiman.
Sword, Caspar a.
This, My, Da, D.
27 ADDITIONAL WORDS NOT COMPARABLE.
Hair, Bairo, Barah.
Silver, Perot a.
258 HAYTAIN LANGUAGE.
Flying fish, Bohery.
Tunny fish, Uassa.
I dont know, Nonquo, Nonquapa.
FRAGMENT ON THE ARAGUAS OF BRAZIL, 1519.
As early as 1519, Pigafetta collected a
dozen words of the Brazilian Language;
which are quite different from the Tupi ,
but very akin to the Haytian. Altho he
does not name the tribe he visited, they
must have been Araguas, who are thus
traced to the Aruac Stock. This great na
tion was still further extended; since the
Patagons or Tinguis, the Chiquitos or
Taos, and perhaps the Charruas belonged
to it, as I shall show elsewhere. Meantime
adding some words from Cabot & Vespucci,
we have 17 Araguas words, whereof 14 are
comparable with the Haytian, offering 10
affinities, which gives 72 per cent of mutual
analogy, much more than with the Cairi.
10 CONSIMILAR WORDS.
House, Boi, Bohio, by Cabot.
HAYTIAN LANGUAGE. 259
Sword, Macana, Cabot.
King, Cachic, (written CacicK) Italian
Big-land, Taquino, by Vespuci, name of
4 DIFFERENT COMPARABLE WORDS.
Pear, Caxus, by Cabot.
Meal or Cassave, Hui.
3 WORDS NOT COMPARABLE.
260 HAYTIAN LANGUAGE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Preface, Page 3
Chapter I. General Introduction, 13
Ch. II. Materials, 35
Ch. III. Cataclysms and floods, 76
Ch. IV. General View, - 101
Ch. V. Linapi annals from the creation
to 1820, 121
Ch. VI. Haytian annals, - 162
Theogony and Cosmogony, 166
Antidiluvian History, 173
Ancient History, - 176
Ch. VII. Haj tian Language restored, 215
Comparative Vocabularies, 230
Dialects, - - 253
END OF FIRST VOLUME.
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